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名师串讲综合英语(二)(珍藏版)10

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年07月25日

35.否定词

英语中的否定结构多以否定词来表示,常用的否定词有:not,no,never,none,nothing,nobody,nowhere,neither,nor,还有表示近似否定的hardly,seldom,scarcely,barely,rarely,little,few等。

No one has any doubt about his ability.

None of the candidates has arrived yet.

I shall never forget your kindness.

I seldom get any sleep after the baby wakes up.

He has hardly spoken to anyone who disagrees with him on this point.

Mr. Smith had barely started speaking when he was interrupted.

注意:否定词若放在句首时,句子的主谓要倒装。

Not for one moment did he stop working.

Little do I know about the city.

但否定的名词词组作主语并放在句首时,不能倒装。

Not all of the passengers escaped unhurt.

Not a single man was killed,and only three wounded.

36.否定结构

否定结构在英语中是一个常用的结构,它有几种常用的形式。

1)一般否定。在这种结构中,not用以否定全句的意义。

This is not the right thing to do.

If you are not moving ahead,you are falling behind.

(2)部分否定。否定词not不否定全句,仅否定句中的某一部分。

What he wants is not sympathy but trust.

Don’t be afraid.I am your friend,not your enemy.

(3)转移否定。believe,suppose,think后面所带的that从句若是否定从句时,其否定词移到主句动词前。

I don’t believe (that) you two have met,have you?

I don’t suppose(that) anyone will object to my absence.

(4)接续否定。这种结构指的是在同一句子中重复使用同一否定词,以加强语气。

Although autumn was well advanced,not a leaf had fallen from the trees,not even one.

I can’t go on moving,not even(for)one inch.

也可用不同的否定词。

No nation can afford to offend its allies,not even the United States.

(5)转换否定。英语中有不少形式上像肯定而实际上表示否定意义的句子。同样,也有不少形式上像否定而实际表示肯定意义的句子。

Catch me doing that again!(我决不再犯了!)

He is the last person to tell a lie.(他不可能说谎。)

That’s the last thing I should expect him to do.(他不可能做那样的事。)

Who likes to do that sort of thing?(没人愿意做那种事。)

This is too much for me to bear.(我受不了。)

You can’t be too careful when you cross the street.(过马路越小心越好。)

I couldn’t agree with you more.(我完全赞成你的观点。)

Which family doesn’t have problems?(家家有本难念的经。)

6)省略否定。在上下文提供足够语境的情况下,否定结构可有省略的形式。

—Do you know the answer to this math problem?

—I’m afraid not.

Some parents don’t know whether they should satisfy all their children’s needs or not.

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