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大学自考英语(二)4

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年07月23日

美国五十个州  

 

A. The New England States (6)   

1. Maine 缅因 2. New Hampshire*新罕布什尔   

3. Vermont佛蒙特 4. Massachusetts*马萨诸塞   

5. Connecticut*康涅狄格 6. Rhode Island*罗得岛 

 

B. The Middle Atlantic States (7)   

7. New York*纽约 8. Pennsylvania*宾夕法尼亚   

9. New Jersey*新泽西 10. Delaware*特拉华   

11. Maryland* 马里兰 12. Virginia*弗吉尼亚   

13. West Virginia西弗吉尼亚   

 

C. The Southern Atlantic States (11)   

14. North Carolina* 北卡罗来纳 15. South Carolina*南卡罗来纳   

16. Georgia*佐治亚 17. Florida佛罗里达   

18. Alabama亚拉巴马 19. Mississippi密西西比   

20. Tennessee 田纳西 21. Louisiana路易斯安那   

22. Arkansas阿肯色 23. Texas得克萨斯   

24. Oklahoma俄克拉何马   

 

D. The Central States (13)   

25. Wisconsin 威斯康星 26. Illinois伊利诺斯   

27. Kentucky肯塔基 28. Indiana印第安那   

29. Ohio俄亥俄 30. Michigan密执安   

31. Minnesota明尼苏达 32. Iowa衣阿华   

33. Missouri密苏里 34. North Dakota北达科他   

35. South Dakota南达科他 36. Nebraska内布拉斯加   

37. Kansas堪萨斯   

 

E. The Western States (13)   

38. Washington华盛顿 39. Oregon俄勒冈   

40. California加利福尼亚 41. Montana蒙大拿   

42. Idaho爱达荷 43. Nevada内华达   

44. Utah犹他 45. Arizona亚历桑那   

46. Wyoming怀俄明 47. Colorado科罗拉多   

48. New Mexico新墨西哥 49. Alaska阿拉斯加   

50. Hawaii夏威夷     

注:有*者曾为英国在北美的十三个殖民地,也是美国最早的十三个州。 

 

 

 

 

Text B   Advertising

短语表达

1. attract attention 吸引注意

He talked loudly to attract attention.他大声说话以吸引注意。

2. for the most part 在很大程度上,多半

These cars, for the most part, are made in China.这些汽车多半产于中国。

3. persuade sb. to do sth. 劝某人做某事

 be persuaded to do sth. 被劝说做某事

The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生劝我父亲戒烟。

The young man was persuaded to take up that job.那个年轻人被劝说接受那份工作。

4. a large amount of 一大笔

He borrowed a large amount of money from the bank.他向银行借了一大笔钱。

5. put out 发布,公布;出版;广播

The article was put out in a national magazine to reach a larger audience.为了能影响更多的读者,文章被登发在一份国家级杂志上。

This newspaper is put out every day.这份报纸每天出版。

The weather forecast has just put out a storm.天气预报刚刚发出了暴风警报。

6. be characteristic of 为…所特有,是…的特征

Rainy days are characteristic of March.多雨的日子为三月所特有。

7. catch the eye 引人注目

The beautiful blue dress in the window caught her eye when she passed the store.她经过那家商店时,橱窗里漂亮的兰色连衣裙吸引了她。

8. identify with 与一致;认为…等同于;跟…发生共鸣,同情;无意识地仿效

His idea identifies with mine.他的观点和我的观点相同。

Never identify personal opinions with facts.切莫把个人观点与事实等同起来。

All the money came from those who identified with him.所有的钱都来自于那些同情他的人。

Children usually identify themselves with their parents.孩子往往会仿效自己的父母。

9. carry over 继续下去,遗留下来

The report was carried over to the next page.报告转入下一页。

His habit carries over from his childhood. 他的习惯从小保留至今。

10. as well as 和,也

Women, as well as men, have the right to work.妇女和男人一样有工作的权利。

  11. over and over again 反复

He mentioned the incident over and over again, which really bored me to death.他反复提及那件事,真把我烦死了。

12. put up with 忍受

Both water pollution and air pollution are becoming more and more serious but we have to put up with them at the moment.水污染和空气污染都在变得越来越严重,但是大家暂时只好忍着。

13. be responsible for 为…负责

It is not yet clear who should be responsible for the accident.谁该对这起事故负责现在还不清楚。

14. decide on 决定,选定

They decided on their plan of action after hours of discussion.经过数小时的讨论,他们决定了行动计划。

15. be involved in 参与,介入

He quitted his job as he no longer wanted to be involved in politics.他不想再介入政治便辞去了工作。

 

    

大学自考英语精华笔记320061102 星期四 13:34Text A  The Altoantic Ocean

本课主要单词

1. unwilling    adj.不情愿的,不愿意的;勉强的

Selfish as she is, she is unwilling to share anything with others. 她很自私,不愿意与他人分享任何东西。

He was unwilling to give up halfway even though there might be more difficulties ahead.

           尽管前面可能有许多困难,但他不愿意中途放弃。

They got some unwilling assistance from the local government. 地方政府勉强给了他们一些协助。

2. equator   n.赤道

Ecuador is near the equator.厄瓜多尔靠近赤道。

People used to believe that at the equator the ocean would be boiling hot.

 人们过去认为,在赤道处海水是滚烫的。

3. bulge   n.不规则突起;鼓起之处;突然上涨,增多        v.使膨胀;塞满

Between the bulge of South America and the bulge of Africa lies the narrowest place of the Atlantic Ocean. 大西洋的最狭窄处位于南美洲的突起处和非洲的突起处之间。

The graph shows a bulge in the birth rate in the year of dragon. 图表显示龙年出生率的暴增。

His schoolbag was bulging with apples when he came back from his uncles orchard.

      他从叔叔的果园回来时书包里鼓鼓囊囊装满了苹果。

4. unusual    adj. 少有的;不寻常的;与众不同的,独特的

It was not unusual for him to work very late every night. 每天工作到深夜对他来说是很平常的事。

He has an unusual name.他有一个不寻常的名字。

It is unusual to see snow in this region.这个地区难得下雪。

This young man has an unusual talent for organization.这个年轻人有非凡的组织才能

5. salty    adj. 咸的,含盐的     salt n. 盐;风趣    v. 用盐调味;用盐腌;撒盐于道路上

He didnt have much for dinner as the dishes were too salty. 他晚餐吃的不多,因为菜太咸了。

It might be a good idea to wash these in salty water. 把这些放在盐水里洗一洗也许是个好主意。

He added a bit more salt to the soup to make it tastier. 为了使汤的味道更好,他又加了一点盐。

His wit added salt to the discussion. 他的妙语使讨论增添了风趣。

Have you salted the potato?你往土豆里加了盐了吗?

It took them a long time to salt the main roads. 他们花了好长时间才在主要公路上撒上盐。

grind salt in sb.s wounds 在某人伤口上撒盐,使某人痛上加痛

with a grain of salt 半信半疑地

Salt Lake City 盐湖城美国尤他州州府

salt mine 盐矿      salt shaker 瓶盖上有细孔用于匀撒的盐瓶

salt spreader 撒盐车   a saltwater lake 咸水湖

saltwater fish 海产    a salted egg 咸蛋

请注意:形容词salty是由名词 salt加形容词后缀 y构成的。这样的形容词在英语中还有很多,如:windysnowyrainycloudysunnyfunnymuddyfoggy

6. average   n. 平均数,平均   adj. 平均的;平常的,普通的   v. 平均

The average of 5,7 and 9 is 7. 579的平均数是7

He receives an average of 50 calls a day.他平均每天接到50个电话。

Mr. Brown could hardly believe that his sons work at school is below the average.

     布朗先生几乎无法相信他儿子的学习成绩低于一般水平。

The average temperature yesterday was below zero.昨天的平均气温在零度以下。

He is an average student in his class.他是班上的一般学生。

A man of average height came to see you today.今天有一位中等身材的人来看你。

He averages one pack of cigarettes a day.他平均每天抽一包香烟。

The annual rainfall here averages 700mm.这里的年降雨量平均为700毫米。

7. spot   n.地点,处所;点,斑点  v. 点缀;认出;准确定位  adj. 当场作出的;现付的

She toured many scenic spots during the holiday.假日里她游览了许多风景胜地。

She told us the exact spot where the accident happened. 她把事故发生的准确地点告诉了大家。

She decided on a blue tie with white spot for her husband. 她给丈夫选了一条蓝底白点的领带。

There is a spot of ink on the white wall.白墙上有墨水渍。

He didnt want to leave a spot on his reputation.他不想在名誉上留下污点。

The night sky is spotted with twinkling stars.闪烁的星星点缀着夜空。

His shoes are spotted with mud.他的鞋子上有泥渍。

She is so special, you can spot her in the crowd easily. 她很特别,你在人群中能一眼认出她来。

He was sent to spot the battery position of the enemy.他被派去测定敌炮阵地。

She was urged to make a spot decision.她被催促当场做决定。

on the spot 当场,在现场   in a spot 在困境中,在窘境中

put sb. on the spot 使某人处于难堪地位

put ones finger on sb.s weak spot 指出某人性格上的弱点

spot check 抽样检查   spot survey 抽样调查

spotlight 聚光灯;汽车上的反光灯;公众注意中心

spot news 现场报道的资讯   spot price 现货价

8. range   n. 山脉;幅度,范围       v.在某范围内变动,变化;把…排列成行

One of the longest mountain ranges of the world rises from the floor of the Atlantic.

 世界最长的山脉从大西洋洋底耸起。

The age range is from 45 to 65.年龄幅度在45岁至65岁之间。

He is not very clear about his range of responsibility.他对自己的责任范围并不清楚。

The question you asked is out of my range.你问的问题我不懂。

Prices of gasoline range from one dollar to one dollar and twenty a gallon.

 汽油的价格从1美金至1美金20美分1加仑不等。

The tiger-sharks range in length from nine feet to fourteen feet. 虎鲸的体长从9英尺到14英尺不等。

The puddings are neatly ranged on the shelf.布丁整齐地排列在架子上。

medium-range missile 中程导弹   wide range of interests 兴趣广泛

at close range 接近地   in/within range 在射程内

9. peak   n. 山峰;顶点

The mountain peak is covered with snow all the year.山峰终年积雪。

His career is at its peak now, no wonder he will make greater achievement.

 他的事业正处于鼎盛时期,毫无疑问,他会取得更大的成就。

10. vessel   n. 船,舰;容器,器皿

an ocean-going vessel 远洋轮  an escort vessel 护卫舰

a fishing vessel 渔船      a drinking vessel 饮具

11. crew   n. 全体船员,全体机务人员

The crew was (were) annoyed at the captains decision.船员们对船长的决定感到恼火。

The aircraft has a crew of 6.这架飞机有6名机组人员。

All 312 passengers and 6 crew members died in the plane crash.

 312名乘客和6名机组人员在飞机失事中丧生。

12. becalm   v.常用被动语态)(指帆船因无风而停止前进

In the days of sailing vessels the crew were afraid they would be becalmed on the ocean.

 在使用帆船的时代,船员们担心他们会因为无风而无法在海洋上飞行。

He was becalmed for a whole week north of the island. 他在海岛北面因无风而停泊了整整一周。

13. gulf   n. 海湾;隔阂;鸿沟

Can you tell me for sure who was the real winner of the Gulf War?

 你能确定地告诉我谁是海湾战争的真正赢家吗?

The quarrel left a gulf between the two close friends. 那场争持在两位好友间造成了隔阂。

the Persian Gulf 波斯湾   the Gulf of Mexico 墨西哥湾

Gulf Stream 湾流,墨西哥湾流

14. stream   n. 小河,溪流    v. 流,涌

They had a walk along the bank of the stream.他们沿着河岸散步。

Lots of tree leaves are floating along with the stream.许多树叶正随着水流漂浮。

Tourists came into the cave in a steady stream.游客们源源不断地进入山洞。

Tears streamed down her cheeks when she heard the news.当她听到那个消息时,泪水顺着脸颊流了下来。

He didnt even frown when blood streamed from his wound. 血从伤口涌出时,他连眉头都没皱一下。

a stream of cold air 一股冷空气   a stream of people 一股人流

a stream of lies 一串谎言      a stream of good ideas 一系列好主意

a stream of light 一道光线     stream of consciousness 意识流

go against the stream 逆潮流而动   go with the stream 随波逐流

  stream-lined cars 流线型汽车

15. current   n. 空气,水等的流,潮流;电流;倾向   adj. 当前的,通行的

The child had been swept away by the current.孩子被水流卷走了。

A steady current of heated air rose from the mountain top. 一股热气从山顶源源不断升起。

There was a powerful electric current running through the wires. 一股强大的电流流过电线。

Mass media influence the current of public opinion.大众传媒影响舆论的倾向。

Give me a current issue of Readers Digest.给我一本最近一期的读者文摘。

A long time ago, it was a current belief that the earth was flat. 很久以前,人们普遍相信地球是扁平。

the main current 主流      a warm current 暖流

an alternating current 交流电   a direct current 直流电

current events 时事       current situation 当前形势

16. affect   v. 影响;打动;疾病侵袭    effect    n. 效果;作用,影响;

His mood was greatly affected by the sad news.  那个悲痛的消息使他的心绪大受影响。

Computers affect our life in many ways.计算机在许多方面影响大家的生活。

Reading in dim light constantly will surely affect the eyes.经常在昏暗的光线下看书肯定会对眼睛有影响。

The child was affected with high fever.孩子发高烧了。

The color gives the effect of being warm.这颜色给人以暖感。

The wonderful sky effect on the festival night impressed everybody.

 绚丽的节日夜空给每一个人都留下了深刻印象。

I just hope this medicine wont have serious side-effect. 我只希翼这种药没有严重的副作用。

sound effect 音响效果   three-dimensional effect 立体感

lighting effect 灯光效果   cause and effect 因果

no effects 无存款银行在空头支票上的批语

be of no effect无效     bring sth. to effect 实行,实施

in effect实际上       take effect 见效;生效

17. climate    n. 气候

The change in climate might be one of the causes for the extinction of dinosaurs.

 气候的变化也许是恐龙灭绝的一个原因。

In cold climates, some of the livestock have to be kept indoors all winter.

 在冰冷的气候区,一些牲畜得在室内一冬。

In the present economic climate we can make greater achievement.

 在目前的经济气候下,大家能够取得更大的成就。

weather   n. 天气

The football match had to be put off because of bad weather. 由于天气不好,足球比赛被推迟了。

Whats the weather like in Hangzhou? I hope it is not as hot there.杭州的天气怎么样?希翼那儿不那么热。

18. flow    n.      v. 流动

Heavy rains brought mud flows down the mountain. 暴雨把泥流冲下了山。

The doctor stopped the flow of blood. 医生把血止住了。

The river flows east into the sea. 这条河向东流入大海。

19. furnish   v. 供应,提供;装备,用家具布置

The school has decided to furnish the library with some new books. 学校决定给图书馆提供一些新书。

They furnished all the passengers with life jackets. 他们为所有的乘客提供救生衣。)

She wants to furnish her new house with modern furniture.她想用时新家具布置新家。

20. highway   n. 公路;  水陆交通干线

The canal was the only highway for commerce.这条远河是唯一的商业路线。

You can find many motels along the highways.在高速公路沿线你会看到许多汽车旅馆。

21. float   v.使漂浮

Colorful flags are floating in the morning breeze.彩旗在晨风中飘荡。

When winter comes yellow leaves float down.冬天到来时,黄叶飘落。

It will be much easier for you to float the logs down the river.你们把木材顺流下漂将会容易得多。

本课主要构词法

Affixation  词缀法

  1. 反意词前缀un-     unusualunwilling

  2. 形容词后缀-y       salty

  3. 名词后缀-or        sailor

Compounding   合词法

  1. 复合名词         highwaysteamshipairplane

  2. 复合形容词       mid-Atlanticeastward

本课概况

The Atlantic Ocean向读者先容了有关大西洋的情况。大家可以了解飞行大西洋的过去和现在,也可以了解大西洋“制造”出来的世界之最。

本课主要语言点

1. The Atlantic Ocean is one of the oceans that separate the Old World from the New.

在表示河流,海洋,群岛,沙漠等地理名称的名词前,以及以复数形式出现的国名前要用定冠词,例如:the Yellow River黄河the Pacific Ocean太平洋the British Isles   不列颠群岛the Sahara撒哈拉沙漠the Alps阿尔卑斯山脉  the Philippines 菲列宾

在表示某一座山,岛屿或某一个湖时不用定冠词,例如:Yellow Mountain黄山Lake Erie伊利湖Hainan Island海南岛

one of +复数名词是英语中常见的用法,请翻译下面的句子:

She is one of the most hardworking students in our class. 她是大家班学习最刻苦的学生之一。

Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in the world.上海是世界最大的城市之一。

印度是世界上人口最多的国家之一。 India is one of the countries with the largest population in the world.

尼罗河是世界上最长的河流之一。Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world.

one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,因此该从句中的谓语要用复数形式。例如:

This is one of the best novels that have been published this year. 这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。

Mr. Smith is one of those men who always think they are right.

史密斯先生属于那些总是认为自己正确的人。

He is not one of those who bow before difficulties.他不是那种在困难面前低头的人。

但是在the only one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句应该被看成修饰单数名词。例如:

He was the only one of the boys who was praised by the teacher. 他是男孩中唯一受到老师表扬的。

Helen is the only one of those girls who doesnt wear make-up. 海伦是那些女孩中唯一不化妆的。

separate from是常用词组,在句子中的意思是“使分离,使分开”,请翻译下面的句子:

1英吉利海峡把英法两国隔开。The English Channel separates England from France.

2理论不应该脱离实际。Theory should not be separated from practice.

the Old world指欧,亚,非三洲,有时仅指欧洲。the New World 指哥伦布发现的美洲大陆。

2. For centuries it kept the Americas from being discovered by the people of Europe.

for centuries 意为“许多世纪”。在英语中用介词for加表示时间的复数名词的表达形式很常见。请翻译下面的句子:

1I havent seen you for days. How is everything?多日不见,一切都好吗?

2I havent seen him for years, I am sure he has changed a lot. 我多年没见到他了,他一定变了不少。

3It seems I have been waiting for you for centuries. Where have you been?

 我似乎等了你几个世纪了,你去哪儿了?

keep from doing 是习惯用法,意思是“使…不…”。

 例如:It is really not easy to keep Father from smoking.要使父亲不抽烟真不容易。

请翻译下面的句子:

1Heavy fog kept the ships from being discovered by the enemy. 大雾使得船只未被敌人发现。

2We had no way to keep him from getting involved in the matter. 大家没有办法使他不卷入那事件中去。

3那种药使他的咳嗽不再加剧。 The medicine keeps his cough from getting more serious.

4当地人的保守思想使得那个地方不能快速发展。

 The local peoples conservative mind keeps that place from developing rapidly.

3. Many wrong ideas about the Atlantic made early sailors unwilling to sail far out into it.

make sb. unwilling to do sth. 意为“使得某人不愿做某事”。例如:His indifference to work made everybody unwilling to cooperate with him.他对工作的冷漠态度使得所有的人都不愿与他合作。

主语+动词+宾语+补语SVOC的句型在课本第二单元的语法中已有较详细的论述。请翻译下面的句子:

1His behavior at the dinner party made the host annoyed. 他在晚宴上的行为使主人很恼火。

2That film made him famous.那部影片使他出了名。

3他刚才的一番话使玛丽很伤心。What he said just now made Mary very sad.

4老师对他作文的评价令他失望。 The teachers comment on his composition made him disappointed.

5What he had done made his friends hesitant to accept the invitation.

 他的所为使得他的朋友们对接受邀请犹豫不决。

6他的挥霍浪费使得他的父母不愿意再给他钱。

 His unthriftiness made his parents unwilling to give him any more money.

4. One idea was that it reached out to “the edge of the world”.

Another idea was that at the equator the ocean would be boiling hot.

这两个都是表语从句和主句中的系动词连用的句子。结构为:主语+系动词+表语从句。请看下面的例句:My idea is that we contact him as soon as possible.我的想法是大家应该尽快跟他联系。

请翻译下面的句子:

1) My suggestion is that we should put off the meeting.我的建议是大家应该把会议延期。

2) One advantage of solar energy is that it will never be used up. 太阳能的一个优点是用之不竭。

3) 问题是你不在时谁照管孩子。 The problem is who will take care of the children while you are away.

4) 看起来天要下雨。It looks that it is going to rain.

请注意辨析another other

another another构成,只和单数可数名词连用。other可用于所有名词前。another+单数名词表示不定的“另一个”,the other+单数可数名词表示特指的“另一个”。

请看下面的例句:

1) This idea is not very practical, will you think of another one? 这个主意不太实际,你能另想一个吗?

2) This book is too difficult. Show me another one.这本书太难了,给我看另外一本。

3) Of the three books in my bag, two are published in China, the other is published in the United States.

我包里的三本书中,两本是中国出版的,另一本是美国出版的。

4) Tom is here, but where are the other boys?汤姆在这儿,其他的男孩在哪儿呢?

5) I like this coat better than the other one.两件上衣中,我更喜欢这一件。

6) This camera is more expensive than the other one.这架照相机比另一架贵。

boiling hot意思是“滚热的,酷热的”。此处的boiling不是形容词而是副词,表示热的程度,修饰hot

5. Sailors were afraid that they might sail right off the earth.

此句中,that引导的名词性从句作形容词的补足语。例如:

1) I am afraid that I can not finish the article in two hours. 我担心我两小时内写不完这篇文章。

2) He was afraid that he couldnt give you a definite answer. 他担心他不能给你一个明确的答复。

3) I am afraid that I have made a mistake.我担心自己犯了一个错误。

4) We are confident that we can overcome all the difficulties. 大家相信自己能克服所有的困难。

对“be + 形容词 + that引起的从句”这类结构,语法家们有的认为that从句做宾语用,有的认为that从句做状语用。根据句子的逻辑意义来判断也许比较方便一些。如:Im sorry that you failed the exam again. 这个句子中的that从句起状语作用,相当于“…because you failed the exam again.

6. The Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific,…

在第一单元中大家讨论过副词的同等比较。本句中as big as 则是形容词的同等比较。在这类句子中,可以有表示程度的状语。例如:

1) This book is not half as interesting as that one.这本书还不如那本书一半有趣。

2) My monthly income is only half as much as his.我的月收入只有他的一半多。

3) This year our university will enroll three times as many students as it did the year before last.

 大家学校今年的招生人数将是前年的三倍。

请翻译下面的句子:

1) 我的英语口语还不及你的一半流利。(My spoken English is not half as fluent as yours.)

2) 这只手提箱还没有那只手提箱一半重。(This suitcase is not half as heavy as that one.)

3) 这个房间是那个房间的两倍。(This room is twice as large as that one.)

7. But suppose no more rain fell into it and no more water was brought to it by rivers.

suppose 常常做动词用,意思是“假定;猜想;认为”。例如:

1) Lets suppose it to be true.让大家假定这是真的。

2) I suppose he is very nervous.我猜想他很紧张。

3) I supposed him to be an honest man, but he often tells lies. 我以为他很诚实,他却经常说谎。

在本句中suppose也可以用supposing是一个连词,意思是“假设(= if);假使…结果会怎么样”。例如:

1) Suppose he is ill, what shall we do?假如他病了,大家怎么办?

2) Suppose a tiger should come out of the cage? 如果一只老虎从笼子中跑出来怎么办?

3) Suppose something should go wrong如果出了什么问题会怎么样?

8. It would take the ocean about 4000 years to dry up.

it takes (sb.) some time to do sth. 是很常用的一个句型。例如:

1) 我骑自行车到学校要花半小时。(It takes me half an hour to get to school by bike.)

2) 他花了两个星期时间才看完那本书。(It took him two weeks to finish reading that book.)

请翻译下面的句子:

1) It took the boy three hours to finish his homework.那个男孩花了3小时才写完作业。

2) It takes less than 4 hours to get to Shanghai by train from Nanjing.从南京乘火车到上海只要不到4小时。

3) 他花了4天时间才走出密林。(It took him 4 days to go out of the forest.)

4) 照顾一个生病的老人要花许多时间。(It will take a great deal of time to look after a sick old man.

9. On the average the water is a little more than two miles deep, but in places it is much deeper.

on the average在句子中的意思是“平均而言”。例如:

1) On the average, they drove 70 miles an hour.他们平均每小时行驶70英里。)

2) On the average, they spend 20 yuan on food every day.他们平均每天花20块钱吃饭。

a little 在句子中修饰more,表示程度,意思是“一点儿,稍许”。much在句子中修饰deeper,也表示程度,加强形容词比较级,意思是“…多”。例如:

1) I feel a little cold.我觉得有点冷。

2) He spent a little more than 20 yuan yesterday.昨天他花了20块多一点儿。)

3) I feel much better now.我现在感觉好多了。

4) She is much more careful this time.她这一次细心多了。

请翻译下面的句子:

1) 干了一天的工作,我觉得有点累。I feel a little tired after a days work.

2) 她对她的同学有点不友好。She is a little unfriendly to her classmates.

3) 听了那个消息他开心多了。He was much happier after hearing that news.

10. This “deep” measures 30,246 feet——almost 6 miles (9.6km).

  本句中的deep做名词用,意思是“深处”,“海渊”水深超过3000英里

  measure 在句子中做动词用,意思是“测量”,“有…深”。例如:

   1) This room measures 10 metres across.这个房间宽10米。

   2) The bridge measures 17 kilometres long.这座桥长17公里。

3) The water tank only measures 2 metres deep.这只水箱只有2米深。

11. One of the longest mountain ranges of the world rises from the floor of the Atlantic.

本句中的 longest与课文前几段中出现的narrowestsaltiestdeepest一样,都是形容词的最高级形式。因为这几个词是单音节词或是以元音结尾的双音节词,所以,最高级的构成是在词尾加-est。对于大部分两个音节以上的形容词,最高级的构成是在形容词前面加most。请看例句:

1) He wants to make everybody believe that he is the happiest person in the world.

 他想使每一个人相信他是世界上最幸福的人。

2) This is the strongest horse I have ever seen.这是我所见过的最强壮的马。

3) The boss wanted to find the most careful employees.老板想找最细心的雇工。

4) 黄山是我所知道的最美的山之一。

Yellow Mountain is one of the most beautiful mountains I have ever known.

5) 这条高速公路是中国最长的。This express way is one of the longest in China.

6) 这本书是三本书中最有意思的。This book is the most interesting of the three.

rise 是一个不及物动词,在句子中的意思是“升起;隆起”。例如:

1) The sun rises in the east.太阳在东方升起。

2) Give the child some medicine, his temperature is rising.  给孩子服药,他的体温在升高。

3) The mountain peak rises above the clouds.山峰高耸入云。

请注意区别以下动词:

1) rise 不及物动词 起立;上升,高耸;浮现

The old lady rose to her feet when she heard the doorbell.

The tower rises to a height of 70 feet.

An idea rises in my mind.

2) raise 及物动词 举起;养育;提高;召集

If you have any questions, please raise your hands.

When Father was in the army, Mother had a hard time raising three children.

The management promised to raise the workerssalary after the negotiation.

He failed to raise the money for his fathers heart operation.

3) arise 不及物动词 升起;出现;由…引起

Heavy smoke arose beyond the mountain.

New problems arise when old ones are solved.

His illness arose from malnutrition.

4) arouse 及物动词 唤醒;激起,引起

The noise outside aroused him from sleep.

The music aroused a feeling of homesickness in him.

floor在句子中的意思是“海底”。在其他语言环境中,floor当然有其他的意思。如;

1) He lives on the seventh floor.他住在7楼。

2) The wood floor gives a feeling of warmth in the winter. 冬天时,木地板给我温暖的感觉。

3) He was given the floor at the meeting.他在会上得到了发言权。

4)He decided to floor the kitchen with plastic tiles.他决定用塑料砖铺厨房地面。

12. The tops of a few of the mountains reach up above the sea and make island

top 在句中做名词用,意思是“顶部,山顶”。例如:

1) He was the first to climb to the top of the hill.他第一个爬上山顶。

2) When we stand on the top of the mountain, the whole city is in sight.(大家站在山顶时,整个城市尽收眼底

请翻译下面的句子,注意top的词类和意思:

1) He shouted at the top of his voice.他放声高叫。n.

2) He is running at the top of his speed.他正以最快的速度奔跑。n.

3) He is the top student in the class.他是班上的尖子学生。adj.

4) This is the top news of the week.这是本周的头条资讯。adj.

5) His father is a top diplomatic advisor.他父亲是高级外交顾问。adj.

6) Mother is going to top the cake with cream.妈妈准备在蛋糕上浇奶油。v.

7) He tops his father by half a head.他比父亲高出半个头。v.

8) She needs a new skirt to match her top.她需要一条新裙子配她的上衣。n.

top有关的词组:

come out top名列前茅   come out on top出人头地      from top to bottom从上到下,彻底地   from top to toe从头到脚;完全    on top of the world非常幸福;心满意足

13. Several hundred miles eastward from Florida there is a part of the ocean called the Sargasso Sea.

  called the Sargasso Sea 是修饰ocean的定语从句,在其前省去了which is

  请看下面的例句:

1) Opportunities are often thing (that) you have not noticed the first time around.

  机会常常是第一次出现时没有被人们注意到的东西。

  2) There is much (that) the little boy can do.有许多是那小男孩能做。

3)He is the right person (that) I want to discuss the problem with.他正是我想与其讨论这个问题的人。

14. In the days of sailing vessels the crew were afraid they would be becalmed here. Sometimes they were.

days常常指“时期,时代”,有时也表示“一生;生命”。请看例句:

1) In his boyhood days, he often went swimming and fishing with his friends.

  在他的童年时代,他常常和伙伴们一起游泳,钓鱼。

2) In the days of Queen Victoria, the British colony expanded rapidly.

  在维多利亚女王时代,英国殖民地迅速扩张。

3) He has experienced a lot of hardships in his days.他一生中吃了许多苦。

crew是一个集合名词,指“全体船员”,后面的谓语动词可以用单数也可以用复数,此句中谓语动词用的是复数were,因为从句子中可以推断出是许多vessels上的船员。Sometimes they were.句子中省略becalmed

15. The Atlantic furnishes much food for the people on its shores.

  furnish sth. to sb. 意思是“为…提供”,大家同样可以用furnish sb. with sth.来表达这个意思。例如:

  They furnished blankets and food to the refugees.他们为难民供应毯子和食物。

  No one expected that he would furnish the information to the opponent.谁也没有料到他会把消息提供给对手。

Luckily, they have furnished us with a car and all the necessary maps.

  幸运的是他们为大家提供了一辆汽车和所有必要的地图。

16. One of its famous fishing regions, the Grand Banks, is near Newfoundland.

  the Grand Banks在句子中做同位语。请看下面的例句:

  1) This theory was advanced by Einstein, a famous scientist.  这个理论是由著名科学家爱因斯坦提出的。

  2) This is Mr. Benjamin, dean of our department.这是大家系主任本杰明先生。

3) Qinghai Lake, the largest inland body of salt water in China, lies 3,198 metres above sea-level.

  中国最大的内陆咸水湖青海湖海拔3,198米。

本课主要词组及句型

词组:

1. separate from               2. keep sb. from doing sth.

3. be unwilling to do sth.           4. between A and B

5. make sth unusual             6. sothat

7. dry up                  8. on the average

9. rise from                10. furnish sth for sb.

11. pile up                 12. fromto

句型:

A.定语从句:

1) The Atlantic is one of the oceans that separate the Old World from the New.

2) Ocean currents affect the climates of the land near which they flow.

B.表语从句:

1) One idea was that it reached out to “the edge of the world”.

2) Another idea was that at the equator the ocean would be boiling hot.

C.结果状语从句:

1) There is so much water in the Atlantic that it is hard to imagine how much there is.

2) We now have such fast ways of travelling that this big ocean seems to have grown smaller.

D.形容词的比较级和最高级:

1) The Atlantic is only half as big as the Pacific, but still it is very large.

2) It is more than 4,000 miles wide where Columbus crossed it.

3) Even at its narrowest it is about 2,000 miles wide.

4) Also, it is the worlds saltiest ocean.

5) The deepest spot is near Puerto Rico.

Ebe one of+复数名词

The Atlantic Ocean is one of the oceans that separate the Old World from the New.

Fit takes sb. some time to do sth.

It would take the ocean about 4,000 years to dry up.

地理名称

1大洲和大洋

Asia 亚洲      Europe欧洲        Africa非洲             North America北美洲

  South America南美洲      Oceania       大洋洲                 the Antarctic南极洲

The Atlantic大西洋   the Pacific太平洋    the Indian(印度洋     the Arctic北冰洋

2.常用词

continent 大陆  continental shelf大陆架   subcontinent次大陆    iceberg冰山

mountain range山脉      volcano火山       delta 三角洲         waterfall瀑布

gulf海湾               straits; channel海峡     coast line 海岸线          beach海滩

3. 大西洋之最

1) The Atlantic is the second largest ocean in the world

2) The Atlantic is the saltiest ocean in the world

3) Puerto Rico Trench is the deepest in the Atlantic Ocean.

4) Gulf Stream is the strongest warm water current in the Atlantic Ocean.

5) The Grand Banks near Newfoundland is the most prosperous fishing region in the world.

6) The drainage area of the Atlantic is four times that of the Pacific or the Indian.

2. 主要属海和岛屿

the Mississippi       密西西比河      the Hudson            哈得逊河         the 亚马逊           AMAZON河

the Congo              刚果河           Baffin Bay             巴芬湾         the Nigeria             尼日利亚河

the Rhine              莱茵河           the Caribbean Sea   加勒比海    the Mexican Gulf           墨西哥湾

the Hudson Bay             哈得逊湾    the Mediterranean Sea    地中海       the Black Sea                黑海

the North Sea                北海         the Baltic Sea         波罗的克海           Iceland                  冰岛

Greenland              格陵兰岛         Faeroe Islands        法罗群岛        Shetland Islands     设得兰岛

Bermudas              百慕大群岛        Azores                  亚速尔群岛     Grenada                格陵纳达岛

Antilles            安的列斯群岛    Trinidad Islands     特里尼达群岛  Malvinas Islands     马尔维纳斯群岛

Bahamas                巴哈马群岛

 

Text B   The Moon

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