山西自考网 发布时间:2013年07月23日




  2. 常考词组:

  in the wayin partpoint of viewcontribute toto apply forin handto turn down

  3. 常考句子:

  1 A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available.

  2 Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.

  3 If there is no choicethere is no decision to be made.

  4 For managers every decision has constraints based on politicsprocedureslawsprecedents and the like.

  5 For examplemanagers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion.

  6 Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that iswhich contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.

  7 In the larger scheme of thingshoweverincreased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.

  8 Some of these objectives are more important than othersbut the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department.



  escapeexplodecollapseshrinkgravitymeasurementbasislaunchconvincingcompanionspeculationswallowoperateto make use ofa great manyabove all

  2. 常考句子:

  1 Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape.

  2 The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.

  3 Some people think that the Start of Bethlehem could have been a supernova.

  4 If a man fell into a black holehe would think that he reached the center of it very quickly.

  5 It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.

  6 On the other handscientists have suggested that every advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind.



  weaken deteriorate debate legal request criterion ensure oppose tradition consideration disabled burden vulnerable prohibition sensitive

  2. 常考词组:

  to debate on  to make request for  be opposed to  to take … into account

  3. 常考句子:

  1 Affected with a serious diseasevan Wendal was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.

  2 Van Wendels last three months of life before being given a finallethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands.

  3 The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shownit starts a nationwide debate on the subject.

  4 What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people havent the right.



  demestic  statistics diplomat  exploit  campaign  execute  convict  despite  deserving  shelf minimum  status deport

  2. 常考句子:

  1 There are estimated to be more than 20000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain.

  2 Of these 20000just under 2000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.

  3 The sad condition of women working as domestics around the world received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicized cases.

  4 A Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murderdespite protests form various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.

  5 She used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka.

  6 Because she found it difficult to feed her four childrenshe accepted a job working as a domestic in London.

  7 So if they do complainthey risk being deported.



  Musician  rhythmic  distinct  consciousness originate  readily  instrument  electronic  thereby  passive   participant

  2. 常考词组:

  to take place  to take over \to take on  in a sense  at a stretch  to serve as  in advance  for the sake of

  3. 常考句子:

  1 The new music was built out of materials already in existence.

  2 Folk musicold and modernwas popular among college students.

  3 They freely took over elements form jazzfrom American country music.

  4 With records at homelisteners imitated these lighting effects as best they could.


efficiency  increasingly  install  personnel  expose  reduction  completion  specific  switch  critical  intensity  scale defective

  2. 常考词组:in that   in question   plenty of

  3. 常考句子:

  1 Most of todays robots are employed in the automotive industrywhere they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies.

  2 Robotsalready taking over human tasks in the automotive field are beginning to be seenalthough to a lesser degreein other industries as well.

  3 The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materialspreventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.

  4 Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific taskthey can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.

  5 Engineers skilled in microelectronics and computer technology are developing artificial vision for robots.

  6 With the ability to “see”robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials.

  7 Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.


research  attach  underlie  relevant  positive  possession  desirable  relaxation  occupation  urban  acquire  participation

  2. 常考词组:be concerned with   be relevant to   to set … as objective

  3. 常考句子:

  1 People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure.

  2 The importance people attach to paid holidays and the rapid development of services for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern.

  3 The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.

  4 Since leisure is basically self-determinedone is able to take to ones interests and preferences and get involved in an activity in ways that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction.

  5 Basicallysuch attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that Leisure can and should be put to good use.

  6 For examplethe degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in gamessports and cultural pursuits are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.

  7 Schools usually set as their educational objective the attainment of a balanced development of the person.

  8 The more seriously this is soughtthe more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.


  flight  negotiation  transport  overcome  internal  external  rhythm  feasible  assumption  promote

  2. 常考词组:

  effect on    to blame… on    to advantage    now that    out of step   to leave … alone

  3. 常考句子:

  1 The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time. para.1

  2 The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. para.2

  3 He later blamed his poor judgement on Jet Lag. para.3

  4 Now that we understand what Jet lag iswe can go some way to overcoming it.para.4

  5 The other belongs in our internal clocks whichleft alonewould tie the body to a 25 hour - yes25 - rhythm.para.5

  6 In time the physiological system will reset itselfbut it does take time. para7

  7 One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. para.8

  8 It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. para.9


  classify  approximate  proportion  appreciation  acknowledge  alter  lengthen  wealthy  neglect  expectation

  2. 常考词组:to approximate to   resistance to    to cope with   attribute … to

  3. 常考句子:

  1 Nation classified as “aged” when they have 7percent of more of their people aged 65 or above. para.1

  2 The nearer a society approximates to zero population growththe older its population is likely to be - at leastfor any future that concerns us now.

  3 The older you are nowof coursethe greater this proportion will beand greater still if you are a woman.

  4 If you are now in your thirtiesyou ought to be aware that you can expect to live nearly one third of the rest of your life after the age of 60.

  第十单元 1.常考单词:

election  vote  certainty  loyalty  decline  democrat  strategy  pursue  impact  headquarters  economy  stir  congress  representative

  2. 常考词组:to identify……as   impact on

  3. 常考句子:

  1 Candidates try to project a strong leadership image. para.4

  2 Whether voters accept this imagehoweverdepends more on external factors than on a candidates personal characteristics. para. 4


  3 A year laterwith the nations economy in troubleBushs approval rating dropped below 40 percent.

  4 Candidates are particularly concerned with winning the states which have the largest population.

  5 Clinton received only 43 percent of the popular vote in 1992compared with Bushs 38 percent and Perots 19 percent.

第十一单元 1.常考单词:

  disorder  irrelevant misleading irresponsible   eventual replace   partly   undergo   suitable   to do research into   be central to be irrelevant to   to aim for

  2. 常考句子:

  1 The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics.

  2 Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results.

  3 People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work.

  4 It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals.

  5 The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments.

  6 Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects.

  7 The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years.

  8 This is partly due to alternatives and partly to the fact that experiments are better designed so fewer need to be used.

  9 Professor David Morton of the department is involved in animal research and is concerned with reducing animal suffering as much as possible.

  10 This includes keeping them in more suitable cages.

  include 后面接动名词作宾语。

  11 In the USone experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rats leg.

  involve 后面接动名词作宾语。

  12 When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the bodyor diseases of the brain for examplewe do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals.

  When it comes to 当提到的时候


  symptom  intellectual  detail  initial inventor    confront  sensitivity  reflection creativity   character   trace   modest investment   to substitute … for   be contrary to   to put off be confronted with   to gaze at   be unaware of   to impress…on   be free from   be beneficial to

  2. 常考句子:

  1 At its bestdaydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.

  2 There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity.para.2

  3Most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. para.2

  4Not only are they less able to deal with the pressure of day-to-day existencebut also their self -control and self-direction become endangered. para.2

  5 But its beneficial effects go beyond this. para. 3

  Go beyond 表示超越,不仅仅是 … ”

  6Historicallyscientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments.

  Take advantage of 利用

  7 Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt withhe would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. para.7

  8 Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success.

  The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.


  1.常考单词:compel   voluntary   undertake   coincide   manual efficiency   compulsion   division   eliminate   boring   amusement   so far as …knows   to coincide with   attitude toward   to go in for

  2. 常考句子:

  1 He cannot be really happy if h is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing.

  2 Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work dependsnot on the job itselfbut on the tastes of the individual who undertake it.

  3 The difference does notfor examplecoincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job.

  4 So that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboringand the more hours he is free to playthe better.



  device   compassion   grab   belonging   threatening convince   foster   persuasion   avail   suspect profound   to convince sb. to do sth.   to comment on

  2. 常考句子:

  1It was a microcassette found in Kathleen Weinsteins shirt pocket that not only led police to her alleged killer but also revealed the New Jersey teacher to be a woman of extraordinary courage and compassion.

  本句是个强调句,另外注意 found 的用法

  2 It was therepolice believethat Weinstein was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag. 本句是强调句。

  3 Weinsteins bodywith hands and feet boundwas discovered by a hiker on March17.

  4 But before she died she somehow slipped the microcassette into her pocket without her killer knowing it.



  solely   content  sensible   persist   vital   logic   evaluate   raw   ultimate   functional extension   undue   concrete   conquer   error   prolong   technician   proof   possess   to pull down to mistake…for   to distinguish between   to come to terms with to end in  to reflect on  to come about  to speculate on

  2. 常考句子:

  1 Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends involved in vital research.

  2 Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others.

  注意本句的倒装形式。并且注意“ connect … to ”表示连接起来

  3 The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom.

  本句中注意“ tendency ”后面要接动词不定式作定语。另外“ mistake … for ”表示错认为 … ”

  4 For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.




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