Key words and phrases
1. efficiency : n 效率，其他同根词：efficient: a 高效率的；inefficient: a 效率低的；inefficiency : n; effective: a 有效果的
1). He has done much to increase the ____ of English teaching.
2). She is very _____ in reducing waste.
3). His ____ study method caused his failure.
4). The city government took some _____ measures to reduce unemployment.
Answers: efficiency, efficient; inefficient, effective
2. increasingly: ad不断增加地， 由此可以联想到：
increase：v 增加; increasing: a 不断增加的; decrease: v减少；
1). Drinking and smoking among young people _____ to an alarming extent.
2). The truth is becoming ______ apparent.
3). The ____ friendly relations between the two countries strengthen the cultural exchanges between them.
3. prevalent: a 流行的，普通的 = popular
4. calculator : n 计算者，计算器，calculate: v 计算；calculation : n 计算; calculating: a 诡计多端的
5. expose: v 使暴露，揭露，揭发，exposure: n; expose sb to sth让某人接触。。。
6. completion: n 完成、结束，由此可以联想到：
complete: v完成，a 完整的，completeness: n 完整；incomplete: a 不完整的
1). He ____ denied the existence of god.
2). He has never ____ a project on time.
3). Money will be paid half in advance and half on _______.
4). When will the new railway ________?
7). intensity : n 强烈、剧烈，由此可以联想到：
intense = strong: a 强烈的, intensive: a 密集的，加强的；intensify: v 加强；intension: n 强烈、紧张。
1). We should ____ the struggle for peace.
2). There are few strong situations or moments of dramatic ______.
3). They have been receiving a four-day ____ training course.
4). They kept working in the ____ heat.
Answers: intensify, intensity, intensive, intense
8. defective : a 有缺点的，defect: n 缺点
9. assemble: v 集合、装配； assembly: n 装配
10. expose sth/sb to sth:暴露，面临、遭受
1). People often expose their skin to the sun in summer.
2). I wont expose my soldiers to such unnecessary risks.
11. in that: 在于，因为
1). I like the country better in that it is closer to nature.
12. in question: 正被谈论的，正被考虑的(通常放在被修饰名词后面)
We know nothing about the plan in question.
Analyze the difficult sentences
1. Most of todays robots are employed in the automotive industry, where they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies. (p2)
分析：该句的考点是where引导的非限定性定语从句，修饰in the automotive industry。另外请注意几个词的用法：employ: v 雇佣，使用，相当于use; program: v 编写程序；take over: 接管、接收、接任，如：Do you want me to take over the driving if you are tired?
such...as例如，welding and spray painting是动名词，做宾语。
2. Robots, already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning to be seen , although to a lesser degree, in other industries as well. (p3)
分析：该句考点如下：already taking over human tasks in the automotive field是现在分词短语做定语；to be seen不定式的被动概念；although to a lesser degree让步状语，to a lesser degree是表示：在更小的程度上，反义词：to a larger degree.
3. The robots used in nuclear pants handle the radioactive materials, preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation. (p3)
分析：主语：The robots；谓语：handle；宾语：the radioactive materials；used in nuclear pants handle the radioactive materials是过去分词短语做定语；preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation是现在分词短语做伴随状语。being exposed to动名词被动语态；prevent sb from doing 阻止某人做某事。
4. Robots differ form automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one. (p4)
分析：该句重要考点：in that,相当于because, 所引导从句表原因。如：
Men are different from other animals in that the former can create and use tools while the latter cannot.
5. It is not yet known whether robots will one day have vision as good as human vision. (p5)
分析：该句的主语是whether引导的主语从句。（有关常识请见课后补充语法。），it 是形式主语；as good as human vision是后置定语修饰vision;
6. Engineers working on other advances are designing and experimenting with new types of metal hands and fingers, giving robots a sense of touch. (p6)
分析：请注意该句中几个-ing的区别：working on other advances是非谓语动词中的现在分词；are designing and experimenting是谓语动词的进行时态；giving robots a sense of touch是非谓语动词的现在分词做结果状语。词组：experiment with sth实验。。。
7. These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do. (p7)
分析：主语：These future robots；谓语：will have；宾语：plenty of work to do。
assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions是过去分词短语做定语，修饰主语，其中动词不定式to see and make decisions是另外一个定语，修饰the ability.
词组：be assembled with sth = be equipped wth sth装备有。。。；a sense of touch触觉，同样的短语还有：a sense of sight/hearing/smell/taste:视觉，听觉，嗅觉，味觉；a sense of humor/direction:幽默感/方向感。make decisions做出决定；plenty of sth充足的，足够的
8. Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. (p7)
分析：这句话是国考题目中常考的。考点：wanting to understand the industry of the future，是现在分词短语做定语，修饰anyone. 词组：know about sth了解。。。，懂得。。。。
名词性从句是由if, whether, that 和各种疑问词充当连接词所引导的从句，其功同名词一样。
1. It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较
1).It is a pity that you didnt go to see the film.
2).It doesnt interest me whether you succeed or not.
3).It is in the morning that the murder took place.
4).It is John that broke the window.
It is said that... 据说…… It is reported that... 据报导……
It is well known that... 众所周知…… It is announced that... 据宣布……
It is believed that... 人们相信…… It is thought that... 人们认为……
It is understood that... 自不待言…… It must be pointed out that... 必须指出……
It must be admitted that... 必须承认……
What surprised me most was that the little girl could play the violin so well.
How he was successful is still a puzzle.
What he wants is a book. 他想要的是一本书。
That light travels in straight lines is known to all. 众所周知，光线沿直线运行。
Whether we will hold a party in the open air tomorrow depends on the weather.
根据主语从句的具体意义，正确的选择who, which, when, where, why, how等连接词，这些连接词既有疑问含义，又起连接作用，同时在从句中充当各种成分。如：
When we shall hold our sports meet is not decided. 大家何时举行运动会还没有决定。
Who broke the glass yesterday is not clear. 还不清楚昨天谁打破了玻璃。
Which car you will choose to buy makes no difference. 你决定买哪一辆车都不会有任何区别。
She says (that) she works from Monday to Friday. 从句是一般现在时
She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk. 从句是一般将来时
He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon. 从句是一般过去时
He said (that) he was going to take care of the baby. 从句是过去将来时
He said (that) they were having a meeting at that time. 从句是过去进行时
The teacher told us(that) nothing is difficult if you put your heart into it.
He said that light travels much faster than sound. 他说光传播比声音传播快得多。
1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中，即主句的谓语动词用否定式，而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。
I dont think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。
I dont believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。
I hope you werent ill. 我想你没有生病吧。
2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。
It doesnt seem that they know where to go.看来他们不知道往哪去。
It doesnt appear that well have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来大家明天不会碰上好天气。
表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句，放在系动词之后，一般结构是“主语＋连系动词＋表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。引导表语从句的that常可省略。另外，常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例如：
1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.
2) This is why we cant get the support of the people.
3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.
4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.
1) The kings decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.
2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.（他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。）（第一个that引导的从句是定语从句，that在从句中作宾语）
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.（汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。）（同位语从句，that在句中不作任何成分） Key words and phrases
1.warning: n 警告，warn : v 警告，warn sb not to do sth; give sb a warning
2.shift: v/n 替换，转移，改变，转变，轮班
1).There has been a shift in fashion from formal to more informal dress.
2).The wind shifted from east to north.
3).She works the day shift and her husband works the night shift.
3.speculate: v 思索、推测，speculate on/upon/about sth, speculation: n, speculator: n
4.datum: n 资料、数据，复数形式：data; 又如：bacterium: 细菌，bacteria;
5.reliability: n 可靠性，reliable: a 可靠的， unreliable: a 不可靠的
6.partial: a 偏袒的，部分的，be partial to sb.
7.up-to-date: a 最新的，out of date: 过时的，to date: 至今
1).Will long dress go out of date next year?
2).To date, we have not received any replies from him.
3).She always wears clothes that are right up to date.
8.analyze: v 分析，analysis: n， 复数形式：analyses.
9.work on:从事…； 对…有影响
1).The scientist has been working on environmental protection for many years.
2).The sufferings of the poor worked on our feelings so much that we gave them all the help we could.
10.set sth up:设立、建立、提出
1).A statue was set up in the center of the city.
2).Many countries agreed to set up an international organization to keep peace.
3).Einstein set up many important theories.
Analyze the difficult sentences:
1.Scientists are working on program to predict where and when an earthquake will occur.(P1)
分析：Scientists are working on program是句子的主体部分，to predict where and when an earthquake will occur是动词不定式做定语，修饰program.其中，where and when an earthquake will occur是动词predict的宾语从句，注意疑问句的语序。词组：work on:从事…，对…有影响，如：
The sufferings of the poor worked on our feelings so much that we gave them all the help we could.
2.They hope to develop an early warning system that can be used to forecast earthquakes so that living can be saved.(P1)
分析：该句中that引导的定语从句修饰an early warning system，另外，so that引导目的状语从句。注意，情态动词的被动语态在这句话中的用法。
3.Two of the biggest earthquakes that were ever recorded took place in China and Alaska.(P2)
分析：主语Two of the biggest earthquakes，谓语took place。该句考点，形容词最高级，the biggest; that were ever recorded是定语从句；were recorded表示“被记录”；词组：take place发生、举行，请注意：该词无被动语态。如：
Great changes have taken place in Beijing in recent years.
4.The nations that are actively involved in earthquake prediction programs include Japan, …..(P4)
分析：该句考点，词组be involved in sth参与…；或be actively involved in sth积极地参与…如：All the countries in the world should be actively involved in protecting the environment.
5.These networks are on the alert for warning signs that show the weakening of rock layers that can precede an earthquake.(P4)
分析：这句话的主干是These networks are on the alert for warning signs，它后面是两个套在一起的定语从句，均是由that引导的，第一个修饰warning signs；第二个修饰the weakening of rock layers。词组：on the alert: 警戒、防备着…如：
Passengers on buses should be on the alert against pick-pockets.
6.They watch for changes in the water level and temperature that are associated with movement along faults.(P4)
分析：词组：watch for密切注意…；be associated with同…有关系。
7.Everyone agrees that earthquakes cannot be predicted with any reliability.(P6)
分析：that引导的是宾语从句，其中cannot be 不可能，表示推测语气；with any reliability带有任何可能性。
8.While this is a small start, it is still a beginning.(p6)
1).While I was walking along the street, I met an E.T.
2).I like watching TV while my husband likes playing chess in the spare time.
3).While he has tries several times, he still fails again.
1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
There goes the bell.
Then came the chairman.
Here is your letter.
In the front of the classroom stands our English teacher.
Ahead sat an old woman.注意：上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词，如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
Here he comes. Away they went.
1)句首为否定或半否定的词语，如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
Never have I seen such a performance.
Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
I have never seen such a performance.
The mother didnt leave the room until the child fell asleep.
1) Why cant I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room
A.is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted
C.smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案A.这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时，其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
A.man did know B.man know C.didnt man know D.did man know
答案D. 看到Not until…的句型，大家知道为一倒装句，答案在C，D 中选一个。
改写为正常语序为，Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th.现在将not提前，后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。
如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
1).Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
2).Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
3).No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.
so, neither, nor作部分倒装
Tom can speak French.So can Jack.
If you wont go, neither will I.
---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
---I dont know, _____.
A.nor dont I care B.nor do I care C.I dont care neither D.I dont care also
答案：B.nor为增补意思也不关心，因此句子应倒装。A错在用 dont 再次否定， C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。
Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
---Its raining hard. ---So it is.
Only in this way can you learn English well.
Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
as, though 引导的倒装句
as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 （形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前）。
注意： 1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
注意: 让步状语从句中，有though，although时，后面的主句不能有but，但是 though 和yet可连用。
1)so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时，需倒装。
So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.
May you all be happy.
3)在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词，可将if 省略，把 were, had, should 移到主语之前，采取部分倒装。
Were I you, I would try it again.
1）Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is
A.man did know B.man knew C.didnt man know D.did man know
2）Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted.
A.didnt I realize B.did I realize C.I didnt realize D.I realize
3)Do you know Tom bought a new car? I dont know, ___.
A.nor dont I care B.nor do I care C.I dont care neither D.I dont care also
解析：答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构，表示也不。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句，表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。