Learn new words and phrases
1. astronomer: n 天文学家；astronomy: n 天文学
2.explode: v 爆炸,由此联想：explosive: a 爆炸性的/n 炸药；explosion: n 爆炸
1). When the bomb______, many people were seriously wounded.
2). The unexpected ________ frightened the little girl.
3). It might be possible to convert _____ energy into heat.
Answers: exploded, explosion, explosive
3. density: n 密度；联想产生：dense: a 密度大的，反义词：sparse;
1). The ____ fog kept the travelers from finding the correct direction.
2). The business area of the city is _____ populated.
3). This liquid has a much greater ____ than water.
Answers: dense, densely, density
4. shrink: v 收缩、退缩、缩水
1). As a result of careless washing, the jacket has shrunk to a childs size.
2).The girl shrinks at the sight of blood.
5. measurement: n 衡量、测量；
由此联想：measure: n措施/v 衡量、测量；measurable: a 可衡量的，可测量的
1). We must take _____ to protect our environment.
2). We have come within ______ distance of success.
3). Clocks give us a ______ of time.
4). There the rainfall is ______ not in inches but in feet.
Answers: measures, measurable, measurement, measured
6.implication: n 含义、暗示；imply: v 暗示
7. basis: n 基础、根据，
由此可以联想得到：base: n 底部；v 以…为底，为根据；basic: a 基础的，根本的；
basically: ad 根本上来说,
1). If you want to improve your English, you must have a solid ______.
2). The furniture of out dorm is really _____: two beds, two chairs and tables.
3). The charges are false for they are not ______ on proven facts.
4). Since no better plan can be worked out, we have to adopt the ____ workable one.
Answers: basis, basic, based, basically
8. observatory: n 天文台；由此可以联想得到：
observe: v 观察；observation: n 观察；observer: n 观察家
9. convincing: a 有说服力的，使人信服的；convince: v 使人信服；convinced: a 感到有说服力的，常见搭配：convince sb of sth; convince sb that
1). He gave us a convincing speech.
2). He convinced me f his sincerity.
10. operate: v 运转、操作、动手术；operation : n 手术，操作；operator: 操编辑
11. research into对…进行研究
She is researching into possible cures for AIDS.
12. swallow up: 吞没、耗尽
Many small businesses have been swallowed up by large companies.
13. apply to sb/sth：适用于某人/某事，请对比：
apply to sb for sth向某人申请某事；apply A to B将A 应用于B
1). You should apply what you have learned to your work.
2). I applied to him for a new job.
3). The study method doesnt apply to everyone
Analyze the important sentences among the text
1. Well, its difficult to answer this question, since the terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here.(p1)
句子分析：it是形式主语，to answer this question是句子主语；since引导原因状语从句，we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon是定语从句，修饰terms; inadequate: 不充分的，不合格的。
2. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space not a thing into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape---not even light. (p1)
句子分析：into which和from which引导两个定语从句，介词：into和fall搭配；from 和escape搭配。这种介词+which的定语从句的形式请多注意。
3. The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point. (p2)
句子分析：这是一个主系表结构句。that用来引导表语从句，不可省略。其中又包含一个when引导的时间状语从句。to a particular point是达到某一个特定的点的含义。
4. But if the star is very large (much bigger than our sun) this process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results. (p2)
如：Im so tired that I can even sleep on my way home.
5. Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull, and you have some idea of the force of a black hole. (p2)
句子分析：该句的主要结构为imagine….and you ……事实上相当于if you imagine…, you will have some idea….. 这种句子结构在历年的考试中曾出现过。请记住：祈使句+ and + 陈述句= if引导的条件状语从句。如：Hurry up and you can catch the last train!
另外，该句还有两个定语成分reduced to the size of a marble和having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull用来修饰the earth.前者为过去分词，而后者为现在分词。词组：
have some idea of sth对…有所了解
6. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes. (p3line13--14)
句子分析：本句的核心结构为it is…that的强调句型，强调时间状语only recently。词组：research into sth对…进行研究。
7. The most convincing evidence of black holes comes from research into binary star systems. (p4)
句子分析：该句主语evidence，谓语comes from；宾语research into binary star systems。
The most convincing是定语，修饰evidence.其中请注意convincing:令人信服的，通常修饰物的形容词多以-ing结尾；而修饰人的多以-ed结尾。如：
I feel excited after hearing the surprising news.
8. Matter from the one which we can see is being pulled towards the companion star. (p4)
句子分析：主语matter; 谓语is being pulled，这是一个进行被动语态；towards the companion star介词宾语；from the one which we can see定语。
9. On the other hand, scientists have suggested that very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind. (p5line4--6)
句子分析：请注意在本句中suggest不是建议的含义，是指出、指明的意思。advanced高级的、先进的；make use of sth利用…，该词组可以拓展成：make good use of 好好加以利用；make full use of充分加以利用。
10. They show us a world which operates in a totally different way from our own and they question our most basic experience of apace and time.(p5)
句子分析：这个句子复杂在于：从which引导的很长的定语从句，特别注意;operate：v 操作；in a way以某种方式；be different from同…不同；question: v 质疑，询问
Learn new words and phrases
1. resolve: v 旋转，常见搭配关系为：resolve around sb/sth围绕…转。
She spends all of her time resolving around her family.
The earth resolves around the sun.
2. solar: a 太阳的，日光的
solar energy太阳能；solar system太阳系；solar month阳历月
3. concerned: a 有关的、担心的
Her job is something concerned with computer.
He is concerned about the result of the exam.
4. colored: a 有色的，对比；colorful: a 丰富多彩的
I like orange-colored coat.
Everybody likes colorful life.
5. religion: n 宗教，religious: a 虔诚的；
请对比：region: n 地区；regional: a 地区的
6. circumstance: n 情况、境遇；
Under no circumstances can we waste time.
7. a great many = a number of = many很多，修饰复数名词。而a great deal of + u.n
A great many students are absent today.
I have wasted a great deal of time.
8. above all: 首先、首要
After the war, he longed above all to see his wife and family.
9. as a rule: 通常、一般而言
As a rule, I only watch sports news.
Analyze the important sentences among the text:
1. First of all, let us consider the earth as a planet revolving around the sun. (p1)
句子分析：first of all首先，词组：consider sth as sth把…当作…，与之类似的词组还有：
look up sth as sth; review sth as sth; treat sth as sth…; revolving around the sun是现在分词短语作定语修饰a planet。
2. These nine planets, together with the sun, make up what is called our solar system. (p1)
句子分析：该句主语为：These nine planets；谓语是make up；what is called our solar system是宾语；together with the sun是状语，而并非句子主语。关于该语法内容请见本讲后面的grammar---主谓一致。
3. How this wonderful system started and what kept it working with such wonderful accuracy is largely a mystery …… (p1)
句子分析：这也是一个主语很复杂的句子：How this wonderful system started and what kept it working with such wonderful accuracy是主语，它是一个主语从句。关于该语法内容请见本讲后面的grammar---主谓一致。
4. The total water area is about three times as large as the land area. (p4)
句子分析：该句的核心句型是A + be + 倍数+ as + adj + as + B.
e.g. The Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific Ocean.
5. These currents are important because they affected the climate of the land areas close to where they flow and also because they carry large quantities of microscope animal and vegetable life which forms a large part of the food for fishes. (p5)
句子分析：这是一个由because引导的主从复合句，其中close to where they flow是定语，修饰the land areas；词组：large quantities of + c.n/u.n; which forms a large part of the food for fishes是定语从句修饰animal and vegetable life。其中life是指生命，不可数名词。
6. The circumstances under which different people live make a difference between the way in which they live and the way in which we live, and it ought to be our business to try to understand those different circumstances so that we can better understand people of other lands. (p8)
句子分析：该句中的under which和in which又是介词+which的定语从句用法，修饰The circumstances和the way；so that引导的时目的状语从句。其中：make a diference;使…不同，产生差异；business 是指责任；
7. Above all, we should avoid deciding what we think about people different from ourselves without first having learned a great deal about them and the kind of lives they have to live.
句子分析：Above all是状语，意思是最重要的，首先；we主语；should avoid谓语；deciding what we think about people different from ourselves宾语；without first…状语。different from ourselves是定语，修饰people; having learned动名词的完成时态，表示这个动作早于deciding发生。重要词组：above all; avoid doing; a great deal
8. It is true to say that the more we learn about other people, the better we understand their ideas and as a rule, the better we like those people themselves.
句子分析：该句的主要结构为：the more…the more…the better意思：越…就越…；如：
The longer you keep this wine, the better it tastes.
The busier I am, the happier I am.
1．由 many a 或 more than + 单数名词作主语时，其谓语用单数形式。
Many a foreigner has been to the Great Wall.
More than one student has visited the exhibition.
2．“……的几分之几”和“……的百分之几” 作主语时，其谓语用单数或复数取决于 of 后的名词。
Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.
40 percent of the students in our class are girls.
3．“a number of + 名词复数”作主语，谓语用复数；“ the number of + 名词复数”作主语，谓语用单数。
A number of pupils like reading picture-books.
The number of the students in our class is 55.
4．并列主语如果指的是同一人、同一物或同一概念，谓语动词用单数，这时 and 后面的名词前没有冠词。
The secretary of the Party branch and director of that factory often works with the workers.
5．成对的名词，如bread and butter涂黄油的面包，soda and water汽水，coffee and milk加牛奶的咖啡，aim and end目的，salt and water盐开水等，虽然有and连接，但仍表单一概念，作主语时，谓语用单数。
A knife and fork is on the table.
6．由 and 连接的并列单数主语的前面分别有each, every或no修饰时，其谓语用单数形式。
No student and no teacher is invited to the party.
In our country every boy and every girl has right to receive education.
7．主语是单数，其后跟有together with, along with (与……一道)，as well as (和；也)，no less than (和……一样)，rather than (而不)，以及with, not, like, but, except, besides, including 等引起的短语时，谓语动词一般用单数形式。
He as well as his sister is a League member.
8．在定语从句中主语是关系代词who, that, which,谓语动词的数应与先行词的数一致。
I, who am your teacher, will teach you everything I know.
9．主语是一些只有复数形式的名词，如clothes, trousers, glasses, compasses, scissors, shoes, socks, gloves等时，谓语用复数。但这类表示成双的东西的名词前有a pair of修饰时，谓语用单数。
My trousers are being washed now.
There is a pair of shoes in the box.
Ten dollars is not enough.
Three months has passed since he left.
11．主语是以-ics 结尾的学科名词以及news, works (工厂)等都属形式复数，而意义单数的名词，其谓语用单数形式。另外means一词单复数同形应视具体情况而定。
Mathematics seems to be difficult to learn.
A new means of teaching is being used in that school.
The United States is a developed country.
13．主语是family, team, group, crowd, class, committee等集合名词时，如果作为一个整体看待，谓语用单数形式，如指的是全体人员时，谓语用复数。
His family are all music lovers.
14．“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”之前有the only, the very, the等限定词和修饰语时，定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。
She is the only one of these women who plays the violin.
15．主语是疑问代词who, what, which,不定代词all, more, most, any, none等以及名词half, part, the rest等既可表示复数意义又可表示单数意义，其谓语视情况而定。
Half of the visitors are from Europe.
Half of the fruit is bad.
16．主语是表示数量的“one and a half +复数名词”，其谓语用单数形式。主语是“one or two + 复数名词”，其谓语用复数形式。
One and a half bananas is left on the table.
There are one or two things I‘d like to know about.
The rich are not always happy.
The new is sure to replace the old.
18．由not only … but also, neither…nor, either…or, not …but以及or连接的并列主语，谓语动词要与最靠近它的主语在数上保持一致。
Not only your fathers friends but also your father likes smoking.
19．在倒装句中以及在There be …结构中，如主语是并列的，谓语动词往往和其后面的第一个主语取得数上的一致。
Where is your mother and younger sister?
There is a pen , two pencils and five books on the desk.
When and where to build the new factory is not decided yet