自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text B Changes to Come in U.S Education
Text B Changes to Come in U.S Education
1 infrastructure n. 基础；（社会的，国家的）基础结构（如教育，运输，通讯等设施）
2 kindergarten n. 幼儿园
3 postgraduate a. 大学毕业后的，大学研究院的
4 scarce a. 1．[一般用作表语]缺乏的，不足的；2．稀有的，珍贵的
5 expansion n. 扩张；膨胀
6 enrol(l)ment n. 1．登记，接收，招生；2．招收人数，入学人数
7 secondary a. 1．第二位的，次要的；2．中等的
8 upheaval n. 1．胀起，（地壳）的隆起；2．剧变，动乱
9 bus(s)ing n. 公共汽车接送；[美]用校车接送学生
10 accountability n. 有说明义务；负有责任
11 promotion n. 1．促进；2．提升
12 diploma([复] diplomas或diplomata) n. 1．执照，特许证；2．毕业文凭，学位证书
13 award vt. 授予，判给
14 sociology n. 社会学
15 establishment n. 1．建立，创办；2．机构
16 journalism n. 1．资讯业；2．[总称]报刊；3．资讯学
17 humanistic a. 人文主义的，人本主义的，人道主义的
18 perspective n. 1．透视，透视画法；2．远景，展望；3．观点，看法
19 integrate vt. 使结合，使并入；使成一体（into）
20 unconventional a. 非常规的，不落俗套的
21 diversity n. 多样性
22 rote n. 1．死记硬背；2．机械的方法
23 permissive a. 1．容许的，许可的；2．随意的，开放的
24 progressive a. 1．进步的，先进的；2．渐次的，累进的
25 prescribe vt. 1．指示，规定；2．开处方，开药
26 schoolhouse n. (小学或乡村学校)校舍
27 route n. 路线；航线
28 infiltrate vt./vi. 渗入，透过；浸润
29 economics[复] n. [用作单或复] 1．经济学；2．经济情况，经济
30 chip n. 1．片屑，切屑；2．（食物）薄片；3．电子集成电路片，（计算机）芯片
31 tier n. 1．排层；2．等级
32 undergraduate n. （尚未取得学位的）大学生
Phrases and Expressions
1 on the contrary 相反地
2 as for 对于，至于
3 demand for 对…的要求
4 to go to law against [俗]控告某人
5 to go along with1.和…一起 2．赞成，附和
6 to shy away from 躲开，回避；
7 to learn by rote 由熟记而学某事
8 to disagree about 对…意见不一
( to agree about ) 对…意见一致
1.scarce: a. 缺乏的，不足的；稀有的，珍贵的
e.g. Firewood is scarce in many parts of the world. 世界上很多地区都缺乏木材。
Scarce resources should be used sensibly. 稀有资源的使用应该合理。
2. expansion: n. 扩张，膨胀
派生词：expand v. 扩张，膨胀
e.g. Expansion into new areas of research is possible. 扩展到新的研究领域是有可能的。
3.promotion: n. 促进；提升
派生词：promote v. 促进，提升
e.g. As part of their sales promotion theyre giving away a free pair of socks with each holiday.
4. award : vt. / n. 授予，给予，判给
e.g. He was awarded his damages by the court.法院判给他损失赔偿费。
reward 意思是"报答，报应，报偿"。而且reward 后面一般要加with。
e.g. He was rewarded with $10000. 他被奖励10000 美金。
5.integrate v. 使结合，使并入，使成为一体
e.g. Its very difficult to integrate yourself into a society whose culture is so different from your own.
6.diversity n. 多样性
e.g. Does television adequately reflect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country?
7.permissive adj. 容许的，许可的，随意的，开放的
e.g. He claims that society has been far too permissive towards drug taking.
8.prescribe vt. 指示，规定，开处方，开药
e.g. The law prescribes that all children must go to school.
Painkillers have been prescribed for me.
9.route n.. 路线，航线
e.g. I live on a bus route so I can easily get to work.
1.on the contrary : 相反地
e.g. It doesnt seem ugly to me; on the contrary, I think its rather beautiful.
2.demand for : 对…的要求，对…的需求
e.g. The workers demands for higher pay were refused by the employers.
3.to go along with : 和…一起
e.g. He has decided to go along with his father. 他决定跟着父亲走。
Changes to Come in U.S Education
The biggest "infrastructure" challenge for the United States in the next decade is not the billions needed for railroads, highways and energy.It is the American school system, from kindergarten through the Ph.D. program and the postgraduate education of adults. And it requires something far scarcer than money - thinking and risk-taking.
The challenge is not one of expansion. On the contrary, the rapid growth in enrollment over the last 40 years has come to an end. ⑴
1.on the contrary, "相反地"
注意本句的时态: 用的是现在完成时,因为有一个明显的时间状语over the last 40 years.
By 1978, more than 93 percent of young people entering the labor force had at least an eighth-grade education. So even if the birthrate should rise somewhat, little expansion is possible for elementary and secondary school enrollments.
The last 30 years of social upheaval are also over. Busing will continue to be a highly emotional issue in a good many large cities. And there will still be efforts to use schools to bring women into fields such as engineering that have traditionally been considered "made." But this shift has already been accomplished in many fields: half or more of the accounting students in graduate schools of business, for example, are now women.
As for most other social issues, the country will no longer try to use schools to bring about social reform. ⑵
2. as for 至于，关于 bring about: 带来,产生
Its becoming increasingly clear to policy makers that schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community.⑶
3. it 是形式主语，that 引导主语从句
Instead, the battle cry for the 90s will be the demand for performance and accountability. ⑷
4. battle cry 呐喊 performance 表现，表演
For 30 years, employers have been hiring graduates for their degrees rather than their abilities;
rather than 的意思是"而不是"。注意本句时态用了现在完成进行时。
employment pay and often even promotion have depended on ones diploma. Now many major employers are beginning to demand more than the completion of school. Some of the major banks, for example, are studying the possibility of entrance examinations that would test the knowledge and abilities of graduates applying for jobs.
Students and parents, too, will demand greater accountability from schools, on all levels. It will be increasingly common to go to law against school districts and colleges for awarding degrees without imparting the skills that are supposed to go along with them.⑹
6. to go to law against … for 意为："为…而控告"
And many young people are already switching to practical "hard" subjects. Caring little about the so-called "youth culture" and the media, they have been shifting from psychology into medicine, from sociology into accounting and from black studies into computer programming.⑺
Demand for education is actually going up, not down. What is going down, and fairly fast, is demand for traditional education in traditional schools.
Indeed, the fastest growing industry in America today may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults. Much of it takes place outside the education establishment- through companies, hospitals and government departments that run courses for managerial and professional employees ; or through management associations and trade associations.
In the meantime, any number of private enterprises are organizing courses, producing training films and tapes and otherwise taking advantage of growth opportunities that universities shy away from.⑻
8. in the meantime "同时"
otherwise 在此是副词，意为："以其他方式" take advantage of "利用"
The demand for continuing education does not take the from that most observers, including this writer, originally expected- namely, "Great Books" classes for adults wanting to learn abort the humanities, the arts, the "life of the mind." We face instead a growing demand for advanced professional education: in engineering and medicine, in accounting and journalism, in law and in administration and management.
Yet the adults who come back for such studies also demand what teachers of professional subjects are so rarely able to supply: a humanistic perspective that can integrate advanced professional and technical knowledge into a broader universe of experience and learning.
Since these new students also need unconventional hours - evenings, weekends or high-intensity courses that stuff a terms work into two weeks- their demands for learning bring a vague but real threat to the school establishment.⑼
that stuff a terms work into two weeks 定语从句修饰high-intensity courses 意为："把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班"
译：由于这些新型学生还要求非常规的学习时间 - 晚上、周末或把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班 - 所以他们的学习要求给学校机构带来了难以言状，但又确实存在的威胁。
The greatest challenge to education is likely to come from our new opportunities for diversity. We now have the chance to apply the basic finding for diversity. We now have the chance to apply the basic findings of psychological, developmental and educational research over the last 100years; namely, that no one educational method fits all children.
Almost all children are capable of attaining the same standards within a reasonable period of time. All but a few babies, for instance, learn to walk by the age of two and to talk by the age of three, but no two get there quite the same way.
So too at higher levels. Some children learn best by rote, in structured environments with high certainty and strict discipline.⑽
10.to learn best by rote 意为：死记硬背地学习，由熟记而学某事
Others gain success in the less structured "permissive" atmosphere of a "progressive" school. Some adults learn out of books, some learn by doing, some learn best by listening.
Some students need prescribed daily doses of information;⑾
11. prescribed daily doses of information 是比喻的说法，
others need challenge and a high degree of responsibility for the design of their own work. But for too long, teachers have insisted that there is one best way to teach and learn, even though they have disagreed about what that way is.⑿
12.that 引导宾语从句，even though 引导让步状语从句，
disagree about 意见不合，有分歧
A century ago, the greatest majority of Americans lived in communities so small that only one one-room schoolhouse was within walking distance of small children. Then there had to be "one right method" for everybody to learn.
Today the great majority of pupils in the United State(and all developed countries) live in big cities with such density that there can easily be three or four elementary schools -as well as secondary schools within each childs walking or bicycling distance. This enables students and their parents to choose between alternative routes to learning offered by competing schools.
Indeed, competition and choice are already beginning to infiltrate the school system. Private schools and colleges have shown an unusual ability to survive and develop during a period of rising costs and dropping enrollments elsewhere. All this present, of course, a true threat to the public school establishment.
But economics, student needs and our new understanding of how people learn are bound to break the traditional education monopoly just as trucks and airplanes broke the monopoly of railroads, and computers and "chips" are breaking the telephone monopoly.⒀
13.be bound（bind 的过去分词）to （必然）
该句的主语是economics, student needs and our new understanding，其中 economics 应该理解为"经济因素"。
to break the monopoly 意为："打破垄断"
just as 引导方式状语从句
In the next 10 or 15 years we will almost certainly see strong pressures to make schools responsible for thinking through what kind of learning methods are appropriate for each child.
We will almost certainly see great pressure, from parents and students alike, for result-focused education and for accountability in meeting objectives set for individual students. ⒁
accountability in 意为："在…方面的责任感 "
set for individual students 过去分词短语作后置定语，修饰objectives 为各个学生制定的目标
本句难理解的难点主要在介词和名词的搭配：great pressure … from … for … and for
The continuing professional education of highly educated adults will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional or graduate work. Above all, attention will shift back to schools and education as the central capital investment and infrastructure of a "knowledge society."
1.That problem is not solely how to be more productive, more comfortable, more content, but how to be more sensitive, more sensible, more proportionate, more alive.
2.But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are, to identity their real problems, to respond more fully to beauty, to place adequate value on life, and to make their world safer than it now is.
3.Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others; the possibilities of creative growth in himself; the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation
4.The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers.
Unit 15 练习
1.solely 2.content 3.sensible 4.persist 5.vital 6.logic 7.evaluate 8.raw 9.ultimate 10.functional 11.extension 12.undue 13. concrete 14.conquer 15.error 16.prolong 17.echnician 18. proof 19.possess 20.to pull down. 21.to mistake…for. 22.to distinguish between. 23.to come to terms with 24.to end in. 25.to reflect on. 26to come about. 27to speculate on
1.Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends involved in vital research. (para.2)
2.Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others.
3.The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom. (para. 3)
4.For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it. (Para. 9)
Computers have taken human beings into a new era.
The computer has brought man into a new age.
Electronic brains can help to solve many problems involved in vital researches.
Aristotle said a poet has the advantage of describing the universal while a specialist is good at expressing only the particular.
Now there is a tendency to mistake data in a computer for wisdom.
The use of computers in industry has brought about remarkable changes in productivity.
The application of computer in the industrial fields has resulted in surprising changes in productivity.
历年考题：1.In education, there should be a good balance among the branches of knowledge that contributes _____ effective thinking and wise judgment. （00.10）
答案：D。 考点：本题主要考查词组 contribute to "有助于… "
2.All the characteristics that distinguish birds _____ other animals can be traced to prehistoric times. (02.4)
答案： D。 本题主要考查词组distinguish … from "从…区别出"。
3.It is becoming increasingly clear to policy-makers ______ schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community. （02.10）
答案：A。 考点： 本句是一个主语从句，因此要填that。
4.The continuing professional education of ______(high) educated adults will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional or graduate work. (01.04)
5.In some big cities in America, there are three or four elementary schools and secondary schools,________.
A. with each within ones walking or bicycling distance.
B. each within ones walking or bicycling distance.
C. it is within ones walking or bicycling distance.
D. with each that is within ones walking or bicycling distance.
本题主要考点：主句是there be 存在句型，A 、D两项不能选，C 缺少连接词， B 项是名词+介词 独立主格结构, 其中 each 指代"每所学校"，ones 是动名词的逻辑主语。
Unit 15 课后单元自测
1.跳跃，飞跃 n. l _ _ _
2.生命的，极其重要的 a. v _ _ _ _
3.坚持 v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
4.征服，战胜 v. c _ _ _ _ _ _
5.普遍的 a. u _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6.延长 v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
7.保护，捍卫 v. s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8.拥有 v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
9.技术员 n. t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
10.模糊的，难解的 a. o _ _ _ _ _ _
11.真正的，真实的 a. g _ _ _ _ _ _
12.确定性 n. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
13.分析 n. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _
14.生的，未加工的 a. r _ _
15.信心 n. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
16.次要的 a. s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
17.使结合 v. i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
18.路线，航线 n. r _ _ _ _
19.经济学 n. e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
20.学生，瞳孔 n. p _ _ _ _
1.Computer may____(regard) as a substitute for intelligence instead of an extension of it.
2.Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends____(involve) in vital research.
3.Facts are terrible things if left____(spread).
4.The number may be an irrelevant number until judgment____(pronounce).
5."Give me a good fruitful error, full of seeds,____(burst) with its own corrections,"Ferris Greenslet wrote,"You can keep your sterile truth for yourself."
6.The poet can help supply the subconscious with material____(enhance) its sensitivity.
7.They are actually the____(raw) of raw materials crying to be processed into the texture of logic.
8.Man may fail____(distinguish) between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision.
9.The fastest____(grow) industry in America today may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults.
10.For 30 years, employers____(hire) graduates for their degrees rather than their abilities.
Ⅲ.Vocabulary and Structure
1.But the question persists ____the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are.
[A] when [B] how
[C] why [D] whether
2.There may be a tendency to mistake data ____wisdom, just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic ____values.
[A] with with [B] for for
[C] with for [D] for with
3.It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence ____an extension of it.
[A] instead of [B] except for
[C] as well as [D] such as
4.It may foster the illusion that man is asking fundamental questions when actually he is asking only functional____.
[A] one [B] ones
[C] that [D] those
5.Men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring ____they found better approaches for dealing with it.
[A] though [B] while
[C] until [D] otherwise
6.The danger is not ____that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.
[A] so many [B] so much
[C] too many [D] too much
7.The ____of poets may enable the men to see a wider range of possibilities than technology alone may inspire.
[A] companion [B] companions
[C] company [D] companies
8.Easy and convenient ____to facts can produce unlimited good.
[A] access [B] advance
[C] advice [D] acceptance
9.It requires a very unusual mind to ____the analysis of a fact.
[A] undergo [B] underlie
[C] undertake [D] undermine
10.The poet can help to keep man from making himself ____in the image of the computer.
[A] out [B] over
[C] up [D] for
1.leap 2.vital 3.persist
4.conquer 5.universal 6.prolong
7.safeguard 8.possess 9.technician
10.obscure 11.genuine 12.certainty
13.analysis 14.raw 15.confidence
16.secondary 17.integrate 18.route
19.economics 20.PupilⅡ.Word Form
1.be regarded 2.involved 3.spreading
4.is pronounced 5.bursting 6.to enhance
7.rawest 8.to distinguish 9.growing
10.have been hiring
Ⅲ.Vocabulary and Structure
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.C
6.B 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.B
1.The computer may promote undue confidence in concrete answers.
2.There is a tendency to confuse intelligence with insight. / Men tend to confuse intelligence with insight.
3.Men may not realize the need to come to terms with themselves.
4.The poet reminds men of their uniqueness.
5.To speculate on this question is a gain.