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自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B Changes to Come in U.S Education

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月10日

Text B Changes to Come in U.S Education

 

New Words
  1 infrastructure n. 基础;(社会的,国家的)基础结构(如教育,运输,通讯等设施)

  2 kindergarten n. 幼儿园
  nursery school(面向2~5岁的孩子)
  3 postgraduate a. 大学毕业后的,大学研究院的
  n.研究生
  post(前缀--后)
  pre(前缀--前)
  4 scarce a. 1[一般用作表语]缺乏的,不足的;2.稀有的,珍贵的
  5 expansion n. 扩张;膨胀
  expand(动词)
  6 enrol(l)ment n. 1.登记,接收,招生;2.招收人数,入学人数
  enroll(动词)
  7 secondary a. 1.第二位的,次要的;2.中等的
  8 upheaval n. 1.胀起,(地壳)的隆起;2.剧变,动乱
  9 bus(s)ing n. 公共汽车接送;[]用校车接送学生
  10 accountability n. 有说明义务;负有责任
  account(动词-叙述、报道)
  accountant(名词-会计员、会计师)
  11 promotion n. 1.促进;2.提升
  12 diploma([] diplomasdiplomata) n. 1.执照,特许证;2.毕业文凭,学位证书
  13 award vt. 授予,判给
  n. 1.判定;2.奖,奖品
  14 sociology n. 社会学
  15 establishment n. 1.建立,创办;2.机构
  16 journalism n. 1.资讯业;2[总称]报刊;3.资讯学
  journalist(资讯工编辑)
  17 humanistic a. 人文主义的,人本主义的,人道主义的
  18 perspective n. 1.透视,透视画法;2.远景,展望;3.观点,看法
  19 integrate vt. 使结合,使并入;使成一体(into
  vi. 结合起来;成一体(into
  20 unconventional a. 非常规的,不落俗套的
  convention(名词-惯例、常规)
  unconventional(形容词)
  21 diversity n. 多样性
  diverse(形容词)

  22 rote n. 1.死记硬背;2.机械的方法
  23 permissive a. 1.容许的,许可的;2.随意的,开放的
  permit(动词)
  24 progressive a. 1.进步的,先进的;2.渐次的,累进的
  progress(名词/动词-进步)
  25 prescribe vt. 1.指示,规定;2.开处方,开药
  26 schoolhouse n. (小学或乡村学校)校舍
  27 route n. 路线;航线
  28 infiltrate vt./vi. 渗入,透过;浸润
  29 economics[] n. [用作单或复] 1.经济学;2.经济情况,经济
  30 chip n. 1.片屑,切屑;2.(食物)薄片;3.电子集成电路片,(计算机)芯片
  31 tier n. 1.排层;2.等级
  32 undergraduate n. (尚未取得学位的)大学生
  a.大学生的
  Phrases and Expressions
  1 on the contrary 相反地

  2 as for 对于,至于
  as to(同义词组)
  3 demand for 的要求
  4 to go to law against []控告某人
  5 to go along with1.一起 2.赞成,附和
  6 to shy away from 躲开,回避;
  7 to learn by rote 由熟记而学某事

  8 to disagree about 意见不一
   ( to agree about ) 意见一致
  重点词汇:
  1.scarce: a. 缺乏的,不足的;稀有的,珍贵的
  e.g. Firewood is scarce in many parts of the world. 世界上很多地区都缺乏木材。
  Scarce resources should be used sensibly. 稀有资源的使用应该合理。
  2. expansion: n. 扩张,膨胀
  派生词:expand v. 扩张,膨胀
  e.g. Expansion into new areas of research is possible. 扩展到新的研究领域是有可能的。
  3.promotion: n. 促进;提升
  派生词:promote v. 促进,提升
  e.g. As part of their sales promotion theyre giving away a free pair of socks with each holiday.
  作为促销的一部分,他们每个假日都免费赠送一双袜子。

  4. award : vt. / n. 授予,给予,判给
  e.g. He was awarded his damages by the court.法院判给他损失赔偿费。
  reward 意思是"报答,报应,报偿"。而且reward 后面一般要加with
  e.g. He was rewarded with $10000. 他被奖励10000 美金。
  5.integrate v. 使结合,使并入,使成为一体
  
e.g. Its very difficult to integrate yourself into a society whose culture is so different from your own.
  使你自己融入一个完全不同的学问非常困难。

  6.diversity n. 多样性
  e.g. Does television adequately reflect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country?
  电视能充分反应这个国家种族和学问上的多样性吗?

  7.permissive adj. 容许的,许可的,随意的,开放的

  e.g. He claims that society has been far too permissive towards drug taking.
  他认为社会对吸毒太放纵了。

  8.prescribe vt. 指示,规定,开处方,开药
  e.g. The law prescribes that all children must go to school.
  法律规定所有的儿童必须上学。

  Painkillers have been prescribed for me.
  医生给我开了止痛药。

  9.route n.. 路线,航线
  e.g. I live on a bus route so I can easily get to work.
  我家就在一条公共汽车线路上,所以我去上班很方便。

  词组:phrases
  1.on the contrary : 相反地

  e.g. It doesnt seem ugly to me; on the contrary, I think its rather beautiful.
  我觉得它并不丑;恰恰相反,它很美。

  2.demand for : 的要求,对的需求
  e.g. The workers demands for higher pay were refused by the employers.
  工人提高工资的要求遭到雇主的拒绝。

  3.to go along with : 一起
  e.g. He has decided to go along with his father. 他决定跟着父亲走。

  重点句子

  Changes to Come in U.S Education
  
The biggest "infrastructure" challenge for the United States in the next decade is not the billions needed for railroads, highways and energy.It is the American school system, from kindergarten through the Ph.D. program and the postgraduate education of adults. And it requires something far scarcer than money - thinking and risk-taking.
  The challenge is not one of expansion. On the contrary, the rapid growth in enrollment over the last 40 years has come to an end.

  1.on the contrary, "相反地"
  注意本句的时态: 用的是现在完成时,因为有一个明显的时间状语
over the last 40 years.
  译:相反,在过去的40年中,学校的在校人数迅速增加的局面已经结束。

  By 1978, more than 93 percent of young people entering the labor force had at least an eighth-grade education. So even if the birthrate should rise somewhat, little expansion is possible for elementary and secondary school enrollments.
  
The last 30 years of social upheaval are also over. Busing will continue to be a highly emotional issue in a good many large cities. And there will still be efforts to use schools to bring women into fields such as engineering that have traditionally been considered "made." But this shift has already been accomplished in many fields: half or more of the accounting students in graduate schools of business, for example, are now women.
  As for most other social issues, the country will no longer try to use schools to bring about social reform.

  2. as for 至于,关于 bring about: 带来,产生
  译:至于大部分其它社会问题,美国将不再设法使用学校来促进社会改革。

  Its becoming increasingly clear to policy makers that schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community.
  3. it 是形式主语,that 引导主语从句
  译:学校不能解决更大社区里的所有问题,这一点政策制定者愈来愈清楚了。
  Instead, the battle cry for the 90s will be the demand for performance and accountability.
  4. battle cry 呐喊 performance 表现,表演
  本句的意思是: 相反,90年代的强烈要求是人的表现和责任心。
  For 30 years, employers have been hiring graduates for their degrees rather than their abilities;
  5.hire(动词)

  rather than 的意思是"而不是"。注意本句时态用了现在完成进行时。
  译:30年来,雇主们一直看重学位而不是能力来雇用毕业生。
  employment pay and often even promotion have depended on ones diploma. Now many major employers are beginning to demand more than the completion of school. Some of the major banks, for example, are studying the possibility of entrance examinations that would test the knowledge and abilities of graduates applying for jobs.
  Students and parents, too, will demand greater accountability from schools, on all levels. It will be increasingly common to go to law against school districts and colleges for awarding degrees without imparting the skills that are supposed to go along with them.

  6. to go to law against … for 意为:"而控告
"
  that 引导定语从句修饰skills,意为:"应该和这些学位一起获得的技能"

  译:学校如果只授予学位而不能培养出与学位相符的技能,人们将会向法院起诉学校,这种做法将会愈来愈普遍。
  And many young people are already switching to practical "hard" subjects. Caring little about the so-called "youth culture" and the media, they have been shifting from psychology into medicine, from sociology into accounting and from black studies into computer programming.
  7. 译:他们对所谓的"青年学问"和媒体不太感兴趣,正在逐步地由心理学转到医学,由社会学转到会计学,由黑人问题研究转到计算机程序设计,等等。
  Demand for education is actually going up, not down. What is going down, and fairly fast, is demand for traditional education in traditional schools.
  
Indeed, the fastest growing industry in America today may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults. Much of it takes place outside the education establishment- through companies, hospitals and government departments that run courses for managerial and professional employees ; or through management associations and trade associations.
  In the meantime, any number of private enterprises are organizing courses, producing training films and tapes and otherwise taking advantage of growth opportunities that universities shy away from.

  8. in the meantime "同时"
  otherwise 在此是副词,意为:"以其他方式" take advantage of "利用
"
  that 引导定语从句修饰
opportunities
  译:与此同时,一些私人企业也组织教学课程,制作培训用的影片和磁带以及以其它方式利用一些大学避而不用的发展机会。

  The demand for continuing education does not take the from that most observers, including this writer, originally expected- namely, "Great Books" classes for adults wanting to learn abort the humanities, the arts, the "life of the mind." We face instead a growing demand for advanced professional education: in engineering and medicine, in accounting and journalism, in law and in administration and management.
  
Yet the adults who come back for such studies also demand what teachers of professional subjects are so rarely able to supply: a humanistic perspective that can integrate advanced professional and technical knowledge into a broader universe of experience and learning.
  Since these new students also need unconventional hours - evenings, weekends or high-intensity courses that stuff a terms work into two weeks- their demands for learning bring a vague but real threat to the school establishment.

  9.stuff(名词-东西、材料;动词-填满)
  that stuff a terms work into two weeks 定语从句修饰high-intensity courses 意为:"把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班"
  译:由于这些新型学生还要求非常规的学习时间 - 晚上、周末或把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班 - 所以他们的学习要求给学校机构带来了难以言状,但又确实存在的威胁。

  The greatest challenge to education is likely to come from our new opportunities for diversity. We now have the chance to apply the basic finding for diversity. We now have the chance to apply the basic findings of psychological, developmental and educational research over the last 100years; namely, that no one educational method fits all children.
  
Almost all children are capable of attaining the same standards within a reasonable period of time. All but a few babies, for instance, learn to walk by the age of two and to talk by the age of three, but no two get there quite the same way.
  So too at higher levels. Some children learn best by rote, in structured environments with high certainty and strict discipline.

  10.to learn best by rote 意为:死记硬背地学习,由熟记而学某事

  structured 是形容词,意为:有组织的,有条理的
  译:有些孩子在非常稳定、纪律严格、结构严谨的环境里靠死记硬背能达到最佳学习效果。
  Others gain success in the less structured "permissive" atmosphere of a "progressive" school. Some adults learn out of books, some learn by doing, some learn best by listening.
  Some students need prescribed daily doses of information;

  11. prescribed daily doses of information 是比喻的说法,

  译:有些学生需要老师像医生开药一样每天给他们规定一定量的信息。
  others need challenge and a high degree of responsibility for the design of their own work. But for too long, teachers have insisted that there is one best way to teach and learn, even though they have disagreed about what that way is.
  12.that 引导宾语从句,even though 引导让步状语从句,
  disagree about 意见不合,有分歧
  译:但长期以来,尽管老师们对什么是最好的教学方法存在分歧,却坚持认为只有一种最好的教学方法。
  A century ago, the greatest majority of Americans lived in communities so small that only one one-room schoolhouse was within walking distance of small children. Then there had to be "one right method" for everybody to learn.
  
Today the great majority of pupils in the United State(and all developed countries) live in big cities with such density that there can easily be three or four elementary schools -as well as secondary schools within each childs walking or bicycling distance. This enables students and their parents to choose between alternative routes to learning offered by competing schools.
  
Indeed, competition and choice are already beginning to infiltrate the school system. Private schools and colleges have shown an unusual ability to survive and develop during a period of rising costs and dropping enrollments elsewhere. All this present, of course, a true threat to the public school establishment.
  But economics, student needs and our new understanding of how people learn are bound to break the traditional education monopoly just as trucks and airplanes broke the monopoly of railroads, and computers and "chips" are breaking the telephone monopoly.

  13.be boundbind 的过去分词)to (必然)
  bind(动词--绑)
  该句的主语是economics, student needs and our new understanding,其中 economics 应该理解为"经济因素"
  to break the monopoly 意为:"打破垄断"
  just as 引导方式状语从句

  译:但是经济因素、学生的需要以及大家对如何学习的新观点都必然要打破传统教育的垄断,正如卡车和飞机打破了铁路的垄断、计算机与芯片正在打破电话的垄断一样。
  In the next 10 or 15 years we will almost certainly see strong pressures to make schools responsible for thinking through what kind of learning methods are appropriate for each child.
  We will almost certainly see great pressure, from parents and students alike, for result-focused education and for accountability in meeting objectives set for individual students.

  14.result(名词--结果、效果)
  focus (动词--集中)
  accountability in 意为:"方面的责任感 "
  set for individual students 过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰objectives 为各个学生制定的目标

  本句难理解的难点主要在介词和名词的搭配:great pressure … from … for … and for
  译:大家几乎肯定还会遇到来自父母及学生同样巨大的压力,要求讲究教育实效,要认真负责地实现为各个学生制定的教育目标。

  The continuing professional education of highly educated adults will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional or graduate work. Above all, attention will shift back to schools and education as the central capital investment and infrastructure of a "knowledge society."

  补充语法常识


  并列结构:在一些长句子里,经常出现并列结构,如:不定式的并列、动名词或名词短语的并列、介词短语的并列等等。掌握这些结构有利于长句的理解。要注意的是不能把不同类的词或短语并列或平行使用。
  例如:
  1.That problem is not solely how to be more productive, more comfortable, more content, but how to be more sensitive, more sensible, more proportionate, more alive.
  不定式的并列

  2.But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are, to identity their real problems, to respond more fully to beauty, to place adequate value on life, and to make their world safer than it now is.
  不定式的并列

  3.Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others; the possibilities of creative growth in himself; the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation
  名词短语的并列

  4.The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers.
  介词短语的并列


  Unit 15 练习

  一、词汇英译汉:
  1.solely 2.content 3.sensible 4.persist 5.vital 6.logic 7.evaluate 8.raw 9.ultimate 10.functional 11.extension 12.undue 13. concrete 14.conquer 15.error 16.prolong 17.echnician 18. proof 19.possess   20.to pull down. 21.to mistake…for. 22.to distinguish between.   23.to come to terms with 24.to end in. 25.to reflect on. 26to come about. 27to speculate on
  二、句子英译汉:

  1.Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends involved in vital research. (para.2)
  
2.Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others.
  
3.The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom. (para. 3)
  
4.For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it. (Para. 9)
  5.6.7.8.补充语法常识中的四个并列结构的句子

  三、汉译英
  1.计算机将人类带入了一个新时代。
  Computers have taken human beings into a new era.
  
The computer has brought man into a new age.
  2.电脑能帮助解决生命研究中的许多问题。

  Electronic brains can help to solve many problems involved in vital researches.
  3.亚里士多德说过,诗人擅长描绘共性而专家只长于某一特性。

  Aristotle said a poet has the advantage of describing the universal while a specialist is good at expressing only the particular.
  4.现在有一种倾向,将计算机里的数据错当成智慧。

  Now there is a tendency to mistake data in a computer for wisdom.
  5.计算机在工业领域的应用使生产效率发生了惊人的变化。

  The use of computers in industry has brought about remarkable changes in productivity.
  
The application of computer in the industrial fields has resulted in surprising changes in productivity.
  历年考题:1.In education, there should be a good balance among the branches of knowledge that contributes _____ effective thinking and wise judgment. 00.10

  A.at
  
B.in
  
C.for
  
D.to
  答案:D 考点:本题主要考查词组 contribute to "有助于
… "
  译文:在教育方面,应当在常识的各个分支上有一个较好的平衡,它有助于有效思考和明智判断。

  2.All the characteristics that distinguish birds _____ other animals can be traced to prehistoric times. (02.4)
  
A.to
  
B.between
  
C.for
  
D.from
  答案: D 本题主要考查词组distinguish … from "区别出"

  译文:所有把鸟类和其他动物区分开的特征可以追溯到史前年代。
  3.It is becoming increasingly clear to policy-makers ______ schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community. 02.10
  A. that
  
B. what
  
C. when
  
D. who
  答案:A 考点: 本句是一个主语从句,因此要填that

  译文: 学校不能解决更大社区里的所有问题,这一点政策制定者愈来愈清楚了。

  4.The continuing professional education of ______(high) educated adults will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional or graduate work. (01.04)
  答案:highly 本题主要考点:副词一般用于修饰动词、形容词、副词。句中educated相当于形容词,所以要用副词修饰。

  译文:在本科教育、专职和研究生教育之后还有高等学历成人的继续职业教育,这是第三种教育。
  5.In some big cities in America, there are three or four elementary schools and secondary schools,________.
  
A. with each within ones walking or bicycling distance.
  
B. each within ones walking or bicycling distance.
  
C. it is within ones walking or bicycling distance.
  
D. with each that is within ones walking or bicycling distance.
  答案:
B
  本题主要考点:主句是there be 存在句型,A D两项不能选,C 缺少连接词,   B 项是名词+介词 独立主格结构, 其中 each 指代"每所学校"ones 是动名词的逻辑主语。

  译文:美国的大城市中,有三到四所中小学,每所学校都很近,学生可以步行或骑自行车上学。
  Unit 15 课后单元自测
  I.Word Spelling
  1.跳跃,飞跃
n. l _ _ _
  2.生命的,极其重要的
a. v _ _ _ _
  3.坚持
v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
  4.征服,战胜
v. c _ _ _ _ _ _
  5.普遍的
a. u _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  6.延长
v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
  7.保护,捍卫
v. s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  8.拥有
v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
  9.技术员
n. t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  10.模糊的,难解的
a. o _ _ _ _ _ _
  11.真正的,真实的
a. g _ _ _ _ _ _
  12.确定性
n. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  13.分析
n. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  14.生的,未加工的
a. r _ _
  15.信心
n. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  16.次要的
a. s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  17.使结合
v. i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  18.路线,航线
n. r _ _ _ _
  19.经济学
n. e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  20.学生,瞳孔
n. p _ _ _ _
  
.Word Form
  
1.Computer may____(regard) as a substitute for intelligence instead of an extension of it.
  
2.Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends____(involve) in vital research.
  
3.Facts are terrible things if left____(spread).
  
4.The number may be an irrelevant number until judgment____(pronounce).
  
5."Give me a good fruitful error, full of seeds,____(burst) with its own corrections,"Ferris Greenslet wrote,"You can keep your sterile truth for yourself."
  
6.The poet can help supply the subconscious with material____(enhance) its sensitivity.
  
7.They are actually the____(raw) of raw materials crying to be processed into the texture of logic.
  
8.Man may fail____(distinguish) between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision.
  
9.The fastest____(grow) industry in America today may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults.
  
10.For 30 years, employers____(hire) graduates for their degrees rather than their abilities.
  
.Vocabulary and Structure
  
1.But the question persists ____the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are.
  
[A] when [B] how
  
[C] why [D] whether
  
2.There may be a tendency to mistake data ____wisdom, just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic ____values.
  
[A] with with [B] for for
  
[C] with for [D] for with
  
3.It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence ____an extension of it.
  
[A] instead of [B] except for
  
[C] as well as [D] such as
  
4.It may foster the illusion that man is asking fundamental questions when actually he is asking only functional____.
  
[A] one [B] ones
  
[C] that [D] those
  
5.Men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring ____they found better approaches for dealing with it.
  
[A] though [B] while
  
[C] until [D] otherwise
  
6.The danger is not ____that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.
  
[A] so many [B] so much
  
[C] too many [D] too much
  
7.The ____of poets may enable the men to see a wider range of possibilities than technology alone may inspire.
  
[A] companion [B] companions
  
[C] company [D] companies
  
8.Easy and convenient ____to facts can produce unlimited good.
  
[A] access [B] advance
  
[C] advice [D] acceptance
  
9.It requires a very unusual mind to ____the analysis of a fact.
  
[A] undergo [B] underlie
  
[C] undertake [D] undermine
  
10.The poet can help to keep man from making himself ____in the image of the computer.
  
[A] out [B] over
  
[C] up [D] for
  
.C-E Translation
  1.计算机可能使人们对具体问题的答案过分自信。

  2.人们倾向于把智力和洞察力混为一谈。
  3.人们可能意识不到自我接受的必要性。
  4.诗人提醒人类注意自身的独特性。
  5.对这个问题进行思索就是一个收获。Unit 15
  Unit15单元自测答案

  I.Word Spelling
  
1.leap 2.vital 3.persist
  
4.conquer 5.universal 6.prolong
  
7.safeguard 8.possess 9.technician
  
10.obscure 11.genuine 12.certainty
  
13.analysis 14.raw 15.confidence
  
16.secondary 17.integrate 18.route
  19.economics 20.Pupil
.Word Form
  
1.be regarded 2.involved 3.spreading
  
4.is pronounced 5.bursting 6.to enhance
  
7.rawest 8.to distinguish 9.growing
  
10.have been hiring
  
.Vocabulary and Structure
  
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.C
  
6.B 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.B
  
.C-E Translation
  
1.The computer may promote undue confidence in concrete answers.
  
2.There is a tendency to confuse intelligence with insight. / Men tend to confuse intelligence with insight.
  
3.Men may not realize the need to come to terms with themselves.
  
4.The poet reminds men of their uniqueness.
  5.To speculate on this question is a gain.

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