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自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A The Computer and The Poet

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月10日

Text A The Computer and The Poet

 

课文概况
  这是一篇论说文。当前计算机的广泛应用使人类进入了一个计算机的时代。计算机技术给人类生活带来了巨大变化,同时,计算机技术也有它的局限性。编辑认为,如果把计算机和诗人的思维方式相结合,可能会更富有成效。
  Paras.1-6 The computer has great advantages and shortcomings as well.
  
Paras.7-10 The junction of computer and poet will be fruitful.

  
New Words

  1 computerize vt. 电子计算机化,用电子计算机计算

  2 solely ad. 单独地,唯一地
  3 content a./vt./n. 满足的,满意的;使满意;满足
  4 sensible a. 感觉得到的,可察觉的;明智的
  5 marvelous a. 奇异的,惊人的
  6 leap v./n. 跳跃;飞跃
  7 theoretical a. 理论上的
  
8 persist vi. 坚持,固执;持续,存留
  9 profusion n. 丰富,大量;过分
  
10 vital a. 生命的;有生命力的
  11 foolishness n. 愚蠢;可笑
  12 unexamined a. 未检查的;未审查的
  13 logic n. 逻辑(学);逻辑性;理由
  
14 evaluate vt. 估价,评价
  15 raw a. 未煮过的,生的;未加工的
  16 texture n. 组织,质地;织品,织物
  
17 ultimate a. 最后的,最终的
  18 digression n. 离题;偏离
  19 obscure a./vt. 昏暗的,朦胧的;模糊的
  20 functional a. 功能的;职务上的;实用的
  21 extension n. 伸张,伸展,扩大
  
22 undue a. 过度的,过分的
  23 concrete a./n./vt. 具体的,有形的;混凝土;使凝固
  
24 conquer vt./vi. 征服,战胜;得胜,胜利
  25 error n. 错误,谬误
  26 correction n. 改正,纠正
  27 sterile a. 不生育的,不结果实的,贫瘠的
  28 prolong vt. 延长,拉长
  29 technician n. 技术员,技术专家
  30 junction n. 连接,结合;

  31 technologist n. 工艺学家;技术专家
  32 loose a. 松的,宽的;放荡的
  33 universal a. 宇宙的,全世界的;普遍的
  34 specialist n. 专家
  35 dynamo n. 发电机;精力;精力充沛的人
  36 nourishment n. 滋补品,营养品
  
37 proof n. 证据,证明
  38 safeguard vt./n. 保卫,保护
  39 uniqueness n. 独一无二
  
40 possess vt. 具有,拥有
  
词组:phrases
  1 to pull down
拆除;推翻
  
2 to mistake…for 错把当作….
  
3 to distinguish between 分辨,区分
  
4 to come to terms (with) 达成协议;妥协,习惯于
  5 to end in 告终
  
6 to reflect on 仔细考虑,反思
  
7 to come about 发生
  8 to turn loose 放开,释放
  9 to enable …to 使能够
  10 respect for 的尊严

  
11 to make over (财产)转让,移交;改造,重做
  
12 to speculate on 思索,推测,猜测
  
access to 接近,进入(的方法,机会,权力等)
  词汇精讲:
  1. persist: vi. 坚持,固执;持续,存留

  派生词: persistent a. 坚持的,一贯的
  用法:persist in 坚持做某事
  e.g. If you persist in breaking the law, you will go to prison. 如果你坚持违法的话,就得进监狱。
  注意区别:insist on 坚持做某事
  2. vital a. 生命的;有生命力的;极其重要的
  e.g. The heart is a vital organ. 心脏是维持生命所必需的器官。
  It is vital that you get the form sent off by the twenty- third of this month.
  你务必将那张表在本月23 号前寄出。

  注意:vital = essential 用于It is vital that + 从句 句型中that 从句的谓语动词要用虚拟语气,形式是 :(should) + 动词原形。
  3. evaluate vt. 估价,评价
  派生词:evaluation n. 估价,评估
  e.g. We shall need to evaluate how the new material stands up to wear and tear.
  大家必须对新材料的耐磨损性进行评估。

  4. ultimatea. 最后的,最终的
  e.g. We dont know the ultimate result. 大家不知道最终的结局。
  His ultimate goal is too distant and shadowy to obtain.
  他的最终目标太遥远,又太模糊,难以实现。

  The ultimate responsibility lies with the headmaster. 根本责任在校长身上。
  5. undue : a. 过度的,过分的
  e.g. Its difficult to find a way of spreading information about the disease without causing undue alarm. 很难找到一种方式发布有关疾病的消息而不引起不应有的恐慌。
  6. conquer v. 征服,战胜
  e.g. Man can conquer nature. 人定胜天。
  It is very difficult to conquer the cigarette habit. 烟很难戒掉。
  He dreamed of conquering hostility by love. 他曾想用爱战胜敌对。
  7. proof: n. 证据,证明,
  派生词: prove v. 证据,证明
  e.g. Keep your receipt as proof of purchase. 保留你的发票作为购买凭证。
  8. possessvt. 拥有,具有
  派生词:possession n. 拥有;
  e.g. He never possessed much money, but he always possessed good health.
  他从未拥有过很多金钱,但他总是享有健康的身体。

  The technician possesses precious data. 技术员掌握了珍贵的数据资料。
  词组 phrases
  1. to pull down: 拆除;推翻

  e.g. They pulled down the warehouse to build a new supermarket.
  他们拆除了仓库来建一个新的超市。

   All the building constructed illegally must be pulled down. 一切非法建筑物都必须拆除。
  2. to mistake …for: 错把当作
  e.g. I mistake you for your brother. 我错把你当作你的兄弟了。
  3. to distinguish between :分辨,区分

  e.g. People who cannot distinguish between colors are said to be colorblind.
  不能辨别颜色的人被称为色盲。

  The twins look so much alike that it is difficult to distinguish between them.
  两个双胞胎如此相似,以至于很难区分他们。

  4. to come to terms (with): 达成协议;妥协,习惯于
  e.g. You need to come to terms with reality. 你必须接受现实。
  They came to terms with the enemy secretly. 他们私自和敌人达成了协议。
  
When your friends quarrel with each other, you should help them come to terms.
  当你的朋友吵架时,你应该帮助他们和解。

  5. to reflect on : 仔细考虑,反思

  e.g. I need time to reflect on your offer. 我需要时间来考虑你的建议。
   We must reflect carefully on the effect of TV violence on children.
  大家必须仔细考虑电视中暴力行为对儿童的影响。

  6. to come about : 发生
  e.g. Can you tell me how the accident came about? 你能告诉我事故是怎么发生的吗?
  Good books come about as a result of hard work. 好书的产生是努力工作的结果。
  7. to make over : (财产)转让,移交;改造
  e.g. His wealth was made over to his children. 他的财产被移交给了他的孩子。
  He has been made over into a new man. 他已经完全改变成了另一个人。
  8 to speculate on 思索,推测,猜测
  e.g. A spokesperson declined to speculate on the cause of the train crash.
  发言人拒绝对火车失事原因进行猜测。


  课文详解:

  The Computer and The Poet
  The essential problem of man in a
computerized age remains the same as it has always been. That problem is not solely how to be more productive, more comfortable, more content, but how to be more sensitive, more sensible, more proportionate, more alive. The computer makes possible a marvelous leap in human proficiency; it pulls down the fences around the practical and even the theoretical intelligence.
  man前面没加任何冠词时指人类
  men(复数)
  human beings
  the race
  age(年龄、年代、时代);era(同义词)

  not solely...but...相当于 not only...but..(不仅而且
  how to(并列结构)
  1.句中makes possible a marvelous leap in human proficiency VCO结构,其中a marvelous leap in human proficiency 是宾语,由于宾语较长,因此把宾补possible 提到了前面。

  SVOC 主、谓、宾、宾补。
  VCO(宾语和宾补进行倒置)
  计算机使人类的熟练程度发生飞跃变化成为可能;它在实践上乃至理论上扫除制约人类智能发展的障碍。
  课文第一句译文:人类在计算机化时代所面临的根本问题一如既往。这个问题不仅仅是要提高生产力(如何更有成效),使人们更舒适、更满足,而且是怎样才能更有情感、更理智、更均衡、更有活力。
  But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are, to identity their real problems, to respond more fully to beauty, to place adequate value on life, and to make their world safer than it now is.

  2.句中whether后面一直到句子结尾都是question 的同位语从句,为了避免头重脚轻,谓语persists and indeed grows提前,插在了主语question 和其同位语之间。在whether 从句中,make it easier or harder for human beings to …是一个VOC结构,it 是形式宾语,真正的宾语是并列的五个不定式短语。
  但是,涉及到人类对自身的认识,对实际存在的问题的辨别,对美的更充分的理解,对怎样给生活更充分的价值,怎样使人类世界比现在更安全等方面,计算机给人类带来的究竟是更大的便利还是更多的困难,这个问题依然存在,而且变得日益严重。
  例:My brother is often late for school while my sister rarely is.
  Electronic brains can reduce the
profusion of dead ends involved in vital research. But they cant eliminate the foolishness and decay that come from the unexamined life. Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others; the possibilities of creative growth in himself; the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation
  3.本句是以否定词nor 开头的部分倒装句,所以主谓倒装,在主语前加了助动词do。句中"he has to be connected to "things 的定语从句。破折号后面的四个名词短语是对things 的补充说明。
  电脑也不能把人和应该与人有关系的事情联系起来。例如,别人的痛苦的现实、提高自身创造力的可能性、人类的记忆、以及下一代人的权利等等。
  The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom, just as there has always been a tendency to confuse
logic with values, and intelligence with insight.
  4.句中"these matters are important in a computerized age"是省略了关系副词why 的定语从句,修饰the reason。在reason, way 等词后的定语从句一般都可省去连接词。本句的谓语是is ,表语是that 引导的表语从句;just as 引导了方式状语从句,正如一样。"tendency"后的不定式是它的定语。
  confuse…with…(把什么和什么混淆)

  在计算机化时代,上述这些问题之所以重要是因为人们可能倾向于把数据误认为智慧,
  正如人们总是倾向于把逻辑与价值相混淆,把智能与洞察力混为一谈一样。
  Easy and convenient access to facts can produce unlimited good only if it is matched by the desire and ability to find out what they mean and where they would lead.

  5.本句的主语是access , 这个名词后边可以跟介词短语to表示接触的对象。在 if 从句中,
  it 指代的是accessthey 指代 facts , to find out what they mean and where they would lead desire and ability 的定语。
  方便快捷地获得信息,只有在人们有愿望和能力搞清这些信息意味着什么和会把人们引向何方时,才能够给人带来无限的好处。
  match(当动词讲时是相配、相符。)
  例:match maker(配对的人,来牵线搭桥的人。)
  Facts are terrible things if left spreading and unexamined.
They are too easily regarded as evaluated certainties rather than as the rawest of raw materials crying to be processed into the texture of logic. It requires a very unusual mind, Whitehead said, to undertake the analysis of a fact. The computer can provide a correct number, but it may be an irrelevant number until judgment is pronounced.
  if+过去分词
  6.句中"if left spreading and unexamined "是过去分词加连接词的形式,在句中作条件状语,相当于if they are left spreading and unexamined 的省略形式。
  信息如果任其泛滥,不加审核,那是可怕的事情。
  be regarded as…(被认为)
  cry to do something(迫切需要...
  To the extent, then, that man fails to distinguish between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the
ultimate responsibilities of human decision, the computer could prove a digression.⑦
  7.句中that 引导的是同位语从句,作the extent 的同位语,表示"的程度上""的情况下"fail to do sth. 表示"不能做某事,无法做某事"
  between A and B(名词短语)

  因而,在不能区别电子智力的中间运算与人的决定的最终责任的情况下,计算机可能被证明是一种节外生枝。
  It could
obscure mans awareness of the need to come to terms with himself. It may foster the illusion that he is asking fundamental questions when actually he is asking only functional ones. It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence instead of an extension of it. It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers. "If we begin with certainties." Bacon said, "we shall end in doubts but if we begin with doubts, and we are patient with them, we shall end in certainties."
  It may…(它有可能)
  foster(形容词-收养的;动词-造成)
  8.that 引导illusion 的同位语从句。ones
questions
  当人们实际只提出功能性问题时,计算机可能使人造成这样的错觉:人们提出的是

  根本性的问题。
  The computer knows how to
conquer error, but before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory, we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation that have come about because men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found better approaches for dealing with it.
  lose oneself in(沉湎于,热衷于)
  9.本句的主句是but 连接的并列句:The computer knows how to conquer error we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation。其中"that have come…到句尾"是一个定语从句,修饰"the great advances";在这个定语从句中,带有because引导的原因状语从句,原因状语从句中又套有一个until 引导的时间状语从句。
  计算机知道如何战胜错误,但是在大家沉醉于庆祝这一成就前,大家也许应该反思,人类以往所取得的巨大进步都是因为人们受到错误挑战并且不断地思考与探索,直到找到对付错误的更好的办法。

  "Give me a good fruitful error, full of seeds, bursting with its own
corrections," Ferris Greenslet wrote, "You can keep your sterile truth for yourself."
  burst (动词-充满、炸裂)
  The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or
prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers. Without taking anything away from the technicians, we think it might be fruitful to effect some sort of junction between the computer technologist and the poet.
  not for
  but for…(而是)

  effect(名词-效果、影响;动词-产生)
  10.effect 在句中作动词,意思是"实现,进行,产生的结果"。句中without 后面要用动名词。本句的意思是:大家认为,在不使技术人员丧失任何东西的情况下,计算机技术人员与诗人之间实现某种结合可能更富有成效。
  A genuine purpose may be served by turning
loose the wonders of the creative imagination on the kinds of problems being put to electronic technology. (11)
  11.句中"to serve a purpose"满足某一目的;being put to electronic technology 是被动的过去分词短语,作problems 的后置定语。
  本句的意思是:通过充分发挥人在处理有电子技术问题的创造性想像的神奇力量,计算机可能起到真正的作用。
  The company of poets may enable the men who tend the machines to see a wider range of possibilities than technology alone may inspire.
(12)
  tend(动词--照料)
  enable...to…
  12.句中宾语"the men"后带有一个who 引导的定语从句。

  与诗人为伍可能使计算机使用者看到比技术自身激发出的更大范围的可能性。
  A poet, said Aristotle, has the advantage of expressing the
universal; the specialist expresses only the particular.13 The poet, moreover, can remind us that mans greatest energy comes not from his dynamos but from his dreams. But the quality of a mans dreams can only be a reflection of his subconscious. What he puts into his subconscious, therefore, is quite literally the most important nourishment in the world.
  the+形容词;the universal 普遍
  13.the universal the particular. 都是 the +形容词,表示一类人或事物。
  全句的大意是:亚里士多德说过,诗人擅长表达普遍,而专家只能表达个别。
  Nothing really happens to a man except as it is registered in the subconscious. This is where event and feeling become memory and where the
proof of life is stored. The poet - and we use the term to include all those who have respect for and speak to the human spirit - can help to supply the subconscious with material to enhance its sensitivity, thus safeguarding it. The poet, too, can help to keep man from making himself over in the image of his electronic wonders. For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.14
  unless(除了以外)
  This is where…/where…(表语从句)
  keep…from(使不能

  not so…as
  14.For 作连词用时,可与上句呼应,承上启下,以提供对上文的因果说明。句中"not so much …as"是比较级的否定形式,进行比较的是两个由that引导的从句,表示的意思是"与其说不如说…""不是而是…"

  由于人类被计算机控制的危险固然存在,但人类若模仿计算机改造人类自身,则更可怕。
  The poet reminds men of their
uniqueness. It is not necessary to possess the ultimate definition of this uniqueness. Even to speculate on it is a gain. (15)
  15.to speculate on it 是不定式作主语。其中 it 指代上句的uniqueness
  
gain
  这种独特性最终如何定义无关紧要,但即使思考一下这个问题也会是受益非浅的。

 

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