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自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B The Workmans Compensation

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月09日

Text B The Workmans Compensation

 

New Words
  1.workman n. 工人,劳动者

  2.tighten vt./vi. (使)变紧;拧紧
  形容词tight+en
  3.infinitely ad. 无限地,无穷地

  4.varied a. 1.各种各样的; 2.杂色的,斑斓的
  vary 改变,变化
  5.subtle a. 1.精巧的,精妙的; 2.微妙的,难以捉摸的
  6.cadre n. 干部;基干
  7.curtail vt. 1.截短,缩短(讲话,假期,节目等); 2.削减(经费等)
  8.subtly ad. 1.精巧的,精妙地; 2.微妙地,难以捉摸地
  subtlety
  9.excessive a. 过多的,过分的

  10.competition n. 1.竞争; 2.比赛
  11.slack a. 1.懒散的,清闲的,松弛的; 2.行动迟缓的,有气无力的
  vi. 减慢,松懈
  n. 1.清闲; 2.淡季,不活跃时期
  12.longshoreman([] longshoremen) n. 码头装卸工人
  13.cargo([]cargo(e)s) n. 船货,货物
  14.toss vt. 1.抛,掷; 2.使摇摆,使动荡
  vi. 1.摇摆,颠簸; 2.翻来覆去
  15.coin n. 硬币,钱币
  vt. 创造(新词)
  16.vengeance n. 报仇,报复
  17.outrage n. 1.暴行,不法行为; 2.愤慨
  vt. 1.施暴; 2.激怒
  18.vain a. 徒劳的
  19.hell n. 1.地狱,阴间; 2.(非正式)用以咒骂或表示愤怒,不满
  20.white-collar a. 白领阶层的,从事脑力劳动的
  blue-collar 蓝领
  dog-collar 狗链
  21.encounter vt./vi 1.遭遇,遇到; 2.意外地遇到(朋友等)
  n. 1.遭遇,冲突; 2.偶然相见

  to come across 意外的遇到
  22.series n. [单复同形] 1.一系列,连续; 2.丛书,套,辑,组; 3.[]串联
  23.assembly n. 1.集合; 2.集会,[总称]与会者; 3.装配,组装
  24.clipboard n. 带弹簧夹子的书写板
  25.stopwatch n. (赛跑用的)跑表
  vt. 用秒表测定时间
  26.disapproval n. 不赞成;不许可
  27.studied a. 1.深思熟虑的; 2.故意的,蓄意的
  28.discredit vt. 1.败坏的名声; 2.使不可置信
  n. 1.丧失信义; 2.不信,怀疑
  29.response n. 1.作答,回答; 2.响应,反应
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.year in and year out 一年一年地,年复一年

  2.in large measure 很;大半;大部分
  3.to take...easy 轻松一点;不用太紧张
  4.on and off (off and on) 1.不时; 2.断断续续地,间歇地
  5.to put an end to 结束或废除某事务
  6.to do ones best 尽全力;尽量
  7.to expect sth.of sb. 对某人报有某种希望
  8.to do with 1.处理; 2.忍受
  9.in return 作为回报
  10.to do without 1.没有也行; 2.将就,设法应付过去
  11.to have an edge 具有优势
  12.so long as 假如;只要
  13.to keep up 1.赶上,不落后; 2.振作,使不落后; 3.遵守; 4.继续,保持
  14.to cut down on 减少对之消耗量
  15.to apply oneself 致力于,努力
  16.to play into sb.s hands 为某人谋方便;有利于某人
  17.at present 现在;目前
  18.to toss a coin 掷硬币(以猜其正反面);(与某人)掷硬币以作决定
  19.with a vengeance 1.猛烈地; 2.过度地
  20.on occasion 有时,间或
  21.to sit down on 反对
  22.in vain 无效地;无结果地;徒然
  23.to go to hell 见鬼去(骂人用法)
  24.to rob sb.of sth. 抢某人之财物

  25.in series 串联电路的;成串联的
  26.with a view towards(to) 为目的
  27.to take a free ride 免费搭车
  28.How come... 怎么会
  重点词汇:
  1.tighten : v(使)变紧,拧紧
  派生词:tight a. 紧的
  egAs he struggledthe ropes tightened even more. 他越挣扎,绳子绑得越紧。
  Are there any plans to tighten control of advertising? 有没有什么加强广告管理的计划?
  2.excessive : a. 过多的,过分的
  派生词:exceed v. 超过,超出;excess n. 超越
  egExcessive exercise can sometimes cause health problems. 过多的锻炼有时也可能带来健康问题。
  Excessive drinking is harmful to your health. 酗酒对你的身体有害。
  3.competition : n. 竞争,比赛
  派生词:compete v. 竞争,比赛
  4.encounter : to come across v. 遭遇,遇到
  egThe army is reported to be encountering considerable resistance in some remote rural areas. 据报道部队在某些偏僻的乡村遇到了相当大的抵抗。
  When did you first encounter these difficulties? 你最初遇到这些困难是在什么时候?

  5.disapproval : n. 不赞成,不许可
  派生词:approval 赞成,许可
  egAlthough they said nothing, she could sense their disapproval.
  尽管他们什么都没说,但她能感觉到他们不赞成。

  Phrases词组
  1.to take …easy 轻松一点;勿太紧张
  egWhen confronted with difficult problems, take it easy and be patient. 碰到难题时要从容耐心。
  2.to do ones best 尽全力;尽量
  egI did my best to stop her. 我已尽全力阻止她。
  3.to expect sth. of sb. 对某人抱有某种希望
  egI cant finish this job by Friday, you expected too much of me. 我星期五以前干不完这项工作,你对我希望太高了。
  4.in return : 作为回报
  egI bought him a drink in return for his help. 我请他喝酒以酬谢他的帮助。
  5.so long as 假如,只要
  egAs long as it doesnt rain we can play. 只要不下雨,大家就能玩。
  You can improve your oral English so long as you keep practicing. 你只要不断地练习,就能提高口语。
  6.to apply oneself: 致力于,努力
  egYou will only pass your exams if you really apply yourself to your work. 你只有真正专心用功,考试才会及格。
  7.on occasion : 有时,间或
  egHe has, on occasion, made small mistakes. 他有时犯一些小错误。
  8.in vain : 无效地;徒然
  egAll our work was in vain.大家的工作都白干了。

  How can someone, hour after hour, day after day, year in and year out, tighten approximately the same nut to the same bolt and not go mad?1That most working people do not, in fact, go mad is due in large measure to a phenomenon so common that it is found wherever people labor in industry: taking it easy. 2It would take some kind of real mental case to do all the work one could all day long. No one expects it. Taking it easy on the job while someone else covers your work, or "working on and off," as it is usually called in America, is an established part of the working life.
  
1.How can someone, hour after hour, day after day, year in and year out, tighten approximately the same nut to the same bolt and not go mad ? (para.1)
  这是一个反意问句,意为:"一个人时复一时,日复一日,年复一年地把几乎同样的螺母拧到螺钉上,又怎么能不发疯呢?
"
  
2.That most working people do not, in fact, go mad is due in large measure to a phenomenon so common that it is found wherever people labor in industry: taking it easy.(para.1)
  That most working people do not, in fact, go mad 是主语从句,that 是只起连接作用,不在句中担任任何成分。

  so common that 中,that引导结果状语从句,句中的it是指前边的 a phenomenon
  wherever people labor in industry:地点状语从句。
  全句译为:" 事实上大多数劳动人民之所以没有精神错乱,很多程度上是由于一个普遍存在的现象:无论人们在哪个行业都不紧不慢的干活。"
  Working on and off, however, has its limits. The rules are infinitely varied, subtle, and flexible, and, of course, they are always changing. Management, up to a certain level at least, is aware of the practice, and in some industries employs entire cadres of people to curtail or put an end to it. 3
Simultaneously, the workers are subtly doing their best to keep it going and to extend it wherever possible.
  
3.Management, up to a certain level at least, is aware of the practice, and in some industries
  
employs entire cadres of people to curtail or put an end to it (para.2)
  up to a certain level at least 修饰 management ,意思是"至少到了一定层次的管理部门
"
  the practice 指的是前一段提到的"干干停停"on and off

  some industries "某些行业"
  译为:管理部门,至少达到某种层 次的管理部门,意识到了这种做法,因此在某些行 业他们雇用整套骨干班子,以减少和杜绝这种干干停停的可能性。

  Every worker has a highly developed sense of how much work is expected of him. When he feels that the expectation is excessive, he tries to do something about it. This instinct has to do with the political nature of work itself, something every modern worker understands.4The bosses want more from the worker than they are willing to give in return. 5The workers give work, and the bosses give money. The exchange is never quite equal, and the discrepancy is called profit. Since the bosses cannot do without profit, workers have an edge. A good worker in a key spot could, so long as he kept up production, take all the coffee breaks he wanted,6and the bosses would very likely look the other way. He could also choose to cut down on the coffee breaks, apply himself, and increase production, and then ask for and get more money. But that would be self-defeating, and he knows it. It would also place him in competition with other workers, which would be playing into the bosses hands.7What he would rather do is create some slack for himself and enjoy his job more.8

  4.This instinct has to do with the political nature of work itself, something every modern worker understands. (para.3)
  something the political nature of work itself 的同位语

  译为:"这种本能与工作本身的政治性质有关,这一点每个现代工人都明白。"
  
5.The bosses want more from the worker than they are willing to give in return. (para.3)
  in return:回报

  "老板想从工人身上榨取比他愿意回报给工人酬金更多的东西。"
  
6.A good worker in a key spot could, so long as he kept up production, take all the coffee breaks
  
he wanted. (para.3)
  so long as:只要

  "关键岗位上的一个好工人,只要他保证产量不降低,就能尽情地利用工间休息。"
  
7.It would also place him in competition with other workers, which would be playing into the bosses hands. (para.3)
  which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子。即"他和别的工人产生竞争"这件事。

  这样会使他和别的工人产生竞争,而这样做对老板有利。
  
8.What he would rather do is create some slack for himself and enjoy his job more. ( para.3)
  What he would rather do 主语从句中有 do ,因此两个作表语的动词不定式create: enjoy: 前面都省略了to

  他情愿创造更多的松弛时间以更多的享受他的工作。
  At present on the West Coast, when a gang of longshoremen working on cargo start a shift, they often divide themselves into two equal groups and toss a coin. One group goes into the far reaches of the slips hold and sits around. The other group starts loading cargo, usually working with a vengeance, since each one of them is doing the work of two men. An hour later, the groups change places. In other words, although my fellow longshoremen and I are getting paid for eight hours, on occasion we work only four .If someone reading this feels a sense of moral outrage because we are sitting down on the job, I am sorry.9I have searched my mind in vain for a polite way to tell that reader to go to hell.10

  9.If someone reading this feels a sense of moral outrage because we are sitting down on the job, I am sorry. (para.4)
  this 指前面提到的内容。

  a sense of moral outrage "一种义愤的感觉
"
  sitting down on the job "停下来不干活
"
  如果某人读到这里时会因为大家停下来不干活而感到很气愤的话,那我很抱歉。

  
10.I have searched my mind in vain for a polite way to tell that reader to go to hell. (para.4)
  in vain 无效地,徒劳地 to go to hell. 见鬼去

  "我绞尽脑汁,可是找不到一种礼貌的说法告诉这位读者,见他的鬼去吧。"
  If you are that reader, I would recommend that you abandon your outrage and begin thinking about doing something similar for yourself.11You probably already have, even if you wont admit it. White collar office workers, too, have come under criticism time is being spent around the Mr. Coffee machine, and some people (would you believe it?) have even been having personal conversations on company time. In fact, one office-system expert recently said that he had yet to encounter a business work place that was functioning at more than about 60percent efficiency. 12

  
11.If you are that reader, I would recommend that you abandon your outrage and begin thinking about doing something similar for yourself. (para.5)
  would recommend "我会建议你
… "
  如果你是那位读者,我会建议你不要愤怒,并开始思考自己也干些类似的事情。

  12.In fact, one office-system expert recently said that he had yet to encounter a business work place that was functioning at more than about 60 percent efficiency. (para.5)
  had yet to encounter "还没有遇到
…"
  事实上,最近一位办公系统专家直言他没有碰到过工作效率超过60%的办公地点。   Management often struggles hare to set up a situation where work is done in series: a worker receives an article of manufacture, does something to it, and passes it on to another worker, who does something else to it and then passes it on to the next guy, and so on. The assembly line is a perfect example of this. Managers like this type of manufacture because it is more efficient---that is, it achieves more production. They also like it for another reason, even if they will not admit it: it makes it very difficult for the worker to do anything other than work. 13

  13.They also like it for another reason, even if they will not admit it: it makes it very difficult for the worker to do anything other than work. (para.6)
  other than "除了以外
"
  虽然他们不承认,但他们之所以喜欢的另一个原因是:这样做使得工人只能关注于工作。

  Frederick W. Taylor, the efficiency expert who early in this century conducted the time-and -motion studies that led to the assembly-line process, tried to reduce workers to robots, all in the name of greater production.14His staff of experts, each armed with clipboard and stopwatch, studied individual workers with a view toward eliminating unnecessary movement. 15
They soon found a great deal of opposition from the workers.
  
14.Frederick W. Taylor, the efficiency expert who early in this century conducted the time-and-motion studies that led to the assembly-line process, tried to reduce workers to robots, all in the name of greater production. (para.7)
  主语有一个很长的同位语,其中有两个定语从句,有who that 引导。

  全句译为:"效率专家Frederick W. Taylor,(佛雷德里克。泰勒)早在本世纪初就进行了时间与动作的研究,从而导致了装配线生产过程的出现。他还试图将工人变成机器人,这都是以提高产量的名义进行的。"
  
15.His staff of experts, each armed with clipboard and stopwatch, studied individual workers with a view toward eliminating unnecessary movement.
  each armed with clipboard and stopwatch, 过去分词短语为独立结构,作伴随状语,each是分词独立结构的逻辑主语,armed为过去分词,意思是:"武装
"
  Most people not directly engaged in daily work express disapproval when they hear of people working on and off. 16A studied campaign with carefully chosen language -"a full days work for a full days pay," "taking a free ride" -has been pushed by certain employers to discredit the practice, and their success is such that I rarely discuss it except with other workers.17
My response is personal, and a feel no need to defend it: If I am getting a free ride, how come I am so tired when I go home at the end of a shift?
  
16.Most people not directly engaged in daily work express disapproval when they hear of people working on and off.
  not directly engaged in daily work working on and off.都是分词短语作定语修饰people不直接从事日常工作的大多数人,当他们听到人们干干停停的做法时,表示不赞成。

  17.A studied campaign with carefully chosen language---" a full days work for a full days pay," "taking a free ride"--- has been pushed by certain employers to discredit the practice, and their success is such that I rarely discuss it except with other workers.
  a studied campaign "一场经过研究的运动
"
  such that 引导结果状语从句,"如此以至于
… "
  全句大意为:某些雇主大力发动一场周密策划的运动,使用精心措词的口号--给一天钱干一天活,只拿钱不干活,-- 来败坏干干停停这种做法的名声。

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