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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B Lets Stop Keeping Pets

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月08日

Text B Lets Stop Keeping Pets

 

New Words
  1.pet n. 宠物,爱畜

  a. 宠爱的,表示亲昵的
  2.delightful a. 令人高兴的;讨人喜欢的
  3.humanity n. 1.人性,博爱,仁慈;2.人类
  4.negative a.1.否定的,否认的;2.反面的,消极的;3.[]负的,[]阴性的
  n. 1.负片,底片;2.负数
  5.remark vt. 说,评论
  vi. 评论,议论(on
  n. 评论,看法
  6.touching a. 动人的,使人感伤的
  7.going n. 进行状况
  a.进行中的;现行的
  8.coming a. 正在到来的,即将来到的
  n. 来到,到达
  9.literal a. 1.精确的,如实的;2.逐字的,字面的
  10.grant vt. 同意;准予
  n.1.同意,授予;2.拨款
  11.contented a. 满足的,满意的
  12.serene a. 安详的;宁静的
  13.contemplate vt. 1.注视,凝视;2.沉思
  14.plea n. 1.请求,请求;2.托词
  15.devotion n. 献身,忠诚
  16.ownership n. 1.拥有;2.所有权,所有制
  17.imperative a. 1.绝对必要的,迫切的;
  2.命令的,强制的;
  3.[]祈使的
  18.stricken I. strike的过去分词
  II.a. 1.被打中的,被击伤的;
  2.(常用以构成复合词)受灾的,受侵袭的
  19.relief n. 1.(痛苦,压迫等)减轻,宽慰;2.救济
  20.donation n. 捐献;赠送
  21.afflict vt. 使苦恼,折磨
  22.deprive vt. 夺去,剥夺;使失去(of
  23.individualistic a. 个人主义(者)的
  24.prevail vi. 1.胜过(over, against);2.流行,盛行
  25.starvation n. 饥饿;饿死
  26.kwashiorkor n. []恶性营养不良症
  27.deficiency n. 缺乏,不足
  28.starve vi. 1.饿死;2.挨饿;3.极需,渴望(for
  vt. 使饿死;使挨饿
  29.sustain vt. 1.支撑,承受住;2.供养,维持
  30.unreasonable a. 1.不讲道理的,非理智的;
  2.不合情理的,过度的
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.to bring out 1.使显现,显示;2.生产,使产生

  2.to attach...to 使相关,把附加到
  3.goings and comings 1.来往;2.活动,发生的事
  4.to take...for granted 1.认为真实;2.视为当然
  5.at ease 自在的,舒适的
  6.to plea for 请求;请求
  7.not that... 并不是说
  8.notnever for a moment 决不;从不
  9.to break in onupon 1.打扰;2.打断,闯进
  10.to feel bitter at 怀恨
  11.to seize hold of 1.抓住;2.占有
  Text B 重点词汇:
  1.negative :a. 否定的,否认的
  反义词:positive a. 积极的,肯定的,正面的
  We received a negative answer to our request. 大家的请求得到了否定答复。
  Shes got such a negative attitude that its depressing to be with her. 她的态度非常消极,跟她在一起让人感到很沮丧。
  2.remark : v. / n. 说,评论
  派生词:remarkable a. 显著的,明显的
  Many representatives remarked upon the development of China in their speeches. 发言中许多代表都谈到了中国的发展问题。
  The president made no remarks upon this. 总统对此未置可否。
  3.grant : vt./n. 同意,准予
  They granted her an entry visa. / They granted an entry visa to her. 他们同意发给她入境签证。
  take it for granted …. : 认为理所当然
  I took it for granted that you would want to see the play, so I bought you a ticket.
  我想当然的认为你想看这个剧,因此给你买了张票。

  4.devotion : n. 献身,忠诚
  派生词:devote v. 献身,投入,奉献
  The teachers devotion to the cause of education is well known. 那位教师对教育事业的献身精神是众所周知的。
  5.relief : n. 减轻,宽慰
  派生词:relieve v. 减轻,缓解
  It was such a relief to hear that Glen had been found safe and well. 听说格仑安然无恙真是让人感到宽慰。
  She breathed a sigh of relief when she found out she had passed her exams. 知道自己通过了考试,她欣慰地舒了一口气。
  6.deprive : vt. 夺去,剥夺;使失去
  No one can function properly if they are deprived of adequate sleep.
  如果缺乏睡眠,没人能正常工作。

  He claimed that they deprived of his freedom. 他声称他们曾剥夺过他的自由权利。
  7.starve : v. 饿死,挨饿;渴望
  They got lost in the desert and starved to death. 他们在沙漠中因迷路而饿死。
  She is lonely, and starving for companionship. 她很寂寞,渴望陪伴。
  8.sustain vt. :支撑,承受住,供养,维持
  We do not have sufficient resources to sustain our campaign for long.
  大家财力不足,无法维持长时间作战

  词组:
  1.to bring out : 使显现,显示;生产
  The sunshine will bring out the blossom. 阳光将使花朵开放。
  A crisis can bring out the best and the worst in people. 危机可以使人的长处和短处显现无遗。
  2.to attach … to : 使相关,
  I attached a photo to my application form. 我把一张照片贴到申请表上。
  She attaches great value to being financially independent. 她很看重经济方面的独立。
  3.at ease: 自在的,舒适的
  I never fell at ease in his company. 我在他的企业从没有感到轻松舒适。
  4.not that : 并不是说,不是因为
  He didnt come to the party yesterday, not that he couldnt come, but that he couldnt come.
  昨天的聚会他没有来,并非他不愿意,而是因为他不能来。

  5.not for a moment : 决不,从来没有
  I dont for a moment doubt his innocence. 我决不怀疑他的清白。
  6.to break in on upon : 打扰,打断,闯进
  Please dont break in on our conversation. 请别打断大家的谈话。
  He opened the wrong door and broke in on a private room. 他开错了门,闯入了一个私人房间。
  课文精讲:
  Pets are lovable, frequently delightful. The dog and the cat, the most favored of pets, are beautiful, intelligent animals. To assume the care for them can help bring out the humanity in our children and even in us. A dog or a cat can teach us a lot about human nature; they are a lot more like us than some might think. More than one owner of a dog has said that the animal understands everything he says to it. So a mother and father who have ever cared for pets are likely to be more patient and understanding with their children as well, and especially to avoid making negative or rude remarks in the presence of a child, no matter how young.
  1.1)句中who have ever cared for pets是定语从句。
  2likely 后接两个由and 连接的不定式结构,即:to be more patient and understanding with their children as well especially to avoid making negative or rude remarks in the presence of a child
  3no matter how young.是让步状语从句,省略了they are
  全句译文:因此养过宠物的父母对他们的子女可能更有耐心,更容易理解他们的孩子,特别是不管孩子多么小,父母在孩子面前不说消极和粗鲁的话。

  It is touching to see how a cat or dog — especially a dog — attaches itself to a family and wants to share in all its goings and comings. If certain animal psychologists are right, a dog adopts his family in a most literal way — taking it for granted that the family is the band of dogs he belongs to.
  2.take it for granted that …. 认为是理所当然的
  全句译文:如果某些动物心理学家是对的话,一条狗实际上收养了她的家庭——想当然的认为该家庭是它归属的一群狗。
  It is sometimes said that the cat “takes all and gives nothing.” But is that really true? A cat can teach us a valuable lesson about how to be contented, how to be serene and at ease, how to sit and contemplate. Whereas a dogs constant pleas for attention become, sometimes, a bit too much. Nevertheless it is the dog who can teach us lessons of loyalty and devotion that no cat ever knew.
  So theres plenty to be said in favor of keeping pets. But with all that in mind, I sill say lets stop keeping pets. Not that a family should kill its pets. Very few could bring themselves to do that. To be practical, I am suggesting that if we do not now have a pet we should not acquire one; second, that if we now have a pet, we let it be our last one. I could never say that pets are bad. I am saying, lets give up this good thing — the ownership of a pet — in favor of a more imperative good.

  3.in favor of 赞成,喜爱,支撑
  全句译文:因此赞成养宠物有很多理由。
  4.句意为:很少有人自己去做这样的事。
  5. 1in favor of 意思是为了的好处,有利于
  2)句中第一个good 是形容词,意思是好的
  3)第二个good 是名词,意思是好事
  全句大意:我只是说,为了做更必要的好事,让大家放弃拥有宠物这件好事。
  
The purchase, the health care, the feeding and housing and training of a pet —and I chiefly mean the larger, longer —lived pets —cost time and money. Depending on the animals size and activity, its special tastes and needs, and the standard of living we establish for it, the care of a pet can cost from a dollar a week to a dollar of more a day. I would not for a moment deny it is worth that.
  
But facts outside walls of our home keep breaking in on our awareness. Though we do not see the poverty-stricken people of India and Africa and South America, we can never quite forget that they are there. Now and then their faces are shown in the news, or in the begging ads of relief organizations. Probably we send a donation whenever we can.
  But we do not, as a rule, feel a heavy personal responsibility for the afflicted and deprived for we are pretty thoroughly formed by the individualistic, competitive society we live in.
The first dime we ever made was ours to spend in any way we chose. No one thought of questioning that. That attitude, formed before we had learned to think, usually prevails through our life: “I made my money. I can spend it any way I like.”
  6.1)句子主干是由并列连词for连接的两个并列句。

  2the afflicted and deprived 定冠词 + 分词的形式,表示一类人。意为受折磨的人和被剥夺了生存条件的人
  3we live in .是定语从句修饰society
  全句译文:但是大家通常并不感到对穷人(受折磨的人和被剥夺了生存条件的人)负有重大的个人责任,由于大家几乎完全是由大家生活于其中的个人主义的竞争的社会塑造成型的。

  But more and more we are reading that the people of the “Third Word” feel bitter at us in the developed countries with the United States far more developed than any of the others for our seizing hold of two-thirds of the worlds wealth and living like kings while they work away all day to earn a bare living.
  7.1)本句的主干是we are reading
  2)在that引导的宾语从句中,our seizing hold 中,our 是动名词seizing 的逻辑主语。 while表示对比,意思是而,然而work away意思是连续地工作,忙碌地工作

  全句译文:可是大家越来越多地读到第三世界的人们对大家发达国家的人(其中美国比任何国家都发达)怀有仇恨,因为大家攫取了世界上三分之二的财富,过着帝王般的生活,而他们整日劳作才勉强糊口。

  The money and the time we spend on pets is simply not our own to spend as we like in a time of widespread want and starvation. A relief organization advertises that for $33 a month they can give hospital care to a child suffering from kwashiorkor —the severe deficiency disease which is simply a starving for protein. Doing without such a pet, and then sending the money saved to a relief organization would mean saving a life —over the years, several human lives.
  8.1)本句的主干是The money and the time , we spend on pets 是定语从句修饰The money and the time
  2to spend as we like 是不等式结构作后置定语修饰our own . 最后的介词短语是时间状语修饰全句。

  全句译文:在一个遍地贫困和饥饿的时代里,大家花在宠物身上的金钱和时间就不单纯是一个大家随心所欲花费的问题了。
  9.句子主语较长,其中saved是过去分词作后置定语修饰the money
  全句译文:不养宠物,而把省下的钱送给救济组织就意味着救人一命——持续几年就会救活几条人命。
  Children not suffering from such a grave disease could be fed with half that amount —not on a diet like ours, but on plain, basic, life-sustaining food. It is not unreasonable to believe that the amount of money we spend on the average pet dog could keep a child alive in a region of great poverty. To give what we would spend on a cat might not feed a child, but it would probably pay for his medical care or basic education. The point needs no laboring. That is that need be said.
  10.本句是由 but 连接的两个并列句。在前一部分中,To give what we would spend on a cat是主语,其中有一个由what引导的宾语从句,意思是:大家可能在一只猫身上花的钱

  全句译文:把大家可能在一只猫身上花的钱捐献出去也许养活不了一个孩子,但可以够支付他的医疗费和教育费。

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