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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Sacrificed to Science?

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月08日

Text A Sacrificed to Science?

 

课文概况: 本文主要论述了以下三点:
  1.对待用动物来做医学实验的不同观点。有些人认为动物研究是不必要的,不相关的,甚至会起误导作用。另一种观点认为,如果把还没有在动物身上彻底实验过的药物用在人身上,那是完全不负责任和不道德的。用动物来做实验对现代医疗科学的发展起着至关重要的作用。
  2.很多科学家一直在致力于减少(Reduction)、改进(Refinement)和代替(Replacement)对动物的实验。
  3.随着研究技术日益先进,可能会减少用动物做实验的数量,但只要医疗研究还要继续,只要用于消费者身上的产品还需准确实验,彻底停止使用动物还很遥远。
  Paras.1—6 The different ideas on animals testing.Paras.7—11 New research in developments makes the number of animals used in laboratory tests decline.Paras.12—14 Even though we dont want to do animal research for medical use, stopping testing on animals is not easy.
                 New Words

  1 anaesthetics

 n.麻醉学

  2 vaccine

 n./a.牛痘苗;疫苗;牛痘的;疫苗的

  3 diabetes

 n.糖尿病

  4 developmental

 a.发展的,开发的

  5 disorder

 n./vt.混乱;失调;使混乱

  6 irrelevant

 a.不相干的,离题的

  7 misleading

 a.引入歧途的,使人误解的

  8 irresponsible

 a.不负责任的,无责任感的

  9 unethical

 a.不合伦理的;不合道德的

  10 thalidomide

 n.[]萨立多胺

  11 replacement

 n.复位,复职;替换,代替

  12 refinement

 n.精炼,精制

  13 simulate

 vt.假装,冒充;模仿,模拟

  14 cell

 n.细胞

  15 toxicity

 n.毒性

  16 eventual

 a.最后的,结局的

  17 dose

 n.(一次)剂量

  18 replace

 vt.放回(原处);使恢复;更换

  19 tube

 n.管,软管;试管

  20 partly

 ad.部分地,在一定程度上

  21 polio

 n.脊髓灰质炎,小儿麻痹症

  22 biomedical

 a.生物医学的

  23 ethics

 n.伦理学,伦理观

  24 undergo

 vt.经历,经受;忍受

  25 suitable

 a.合适的,适当的

  26 rabbit

 n.

  27 litter

 n./vt.(供动物睡眠或植物防冻的)干草;
 杂乱无章;为(动物)铺草;乱丢

  28 refine

 vt./vi.提纯,精制;使精美,使改进

  29 regeneration

 n.新生,再生,复兴

  30 paralyse

 vt.使麻痹,使瘫痪;

  31 regrow

 vt.再生长,重新生长

  32 reproduce

 vt.繁殖;再生产;复制

  词组:

1 to sacrifice to

 向献祭;为..而牺牲;

2 to do research into

 进行的研究

3 be central to

 对极为重要的

4 to do experiment on

 用做实验

5 be irrelevant to

 与不相干;不切题

6 to test on

 对进行试验

7 to aim for

 瞄准;以为目标

  词汇精讲:
  1.disorder: n./ vt.混乱,失调,紊乱

  派生词:order n.顺序,秩序
  The whole office was in a state of disorder – she couldnt find a thing that she looked for.
  整个办公室里一片混乱,她要找的东西一样也找不到。

  The police tried to quiet the disorders in the streets.警察设法平息街头的骚乱。
  dis-,ir-,un- ,il-是反义前缀

  2.irrelevant : a.不相干的,离题的
  派生词:relevant a.相关的,相干的
  The documents are largely irrelevant to the present investigation.
  这些文件与目前进行的调查基本上不相干。

  mis-前缀表示错误,弄错
  3.irresponsiblea.不负责任的,无责任感的
  派生词:responsible a.负责任的
  It would be irresponsible of me to encourage you to invest in the poorly managed company.如果我鼓励你投资于该管理不善的企业,那是不负责任。
  He is irresponsible for what he says.他对自己所说的话不负责任。
  注:类似表示反义的前缀,在字母r : ir- irregular
irrelevant
  在字母l
: il- illegal
  在字母m .p.b
: im- impossible , immovable , imbalance
  在字母前: in- independent , inactive , incapable

  re-前缀表示重复
  cell细胞,蜂窝,cell-phone 手机
  4.simulate: vt.假装,冒充,模仿,模拟
  In cheap furniture, plastic is often used to simulate wood.在低价家具中,常用塑料冒充木料。
  5.eventuala.最后的,结局的
  同义词:last, finally, in the end
  The eventual decision came after weeks of consideration.经过数周的考虑后最终作出了决定。

  There are still many problems to be resolved, but we remain optimistic about an eventual agreement.尽管还有很多问题要解决,但大家对达成最终协议仍抱乐观态度。
  6.replace vt.代替,取代;=to take the place of (强调完全取代)
  同义词:substitute v.代替 (强调临时性的代替。例:He substitutes as our teacher of English.
  辨析:substitute … for ; replace … with
  Weve substituted a computer for that old machine.大家用电脑代替了那台旧机器。

  Weve replaced the old machine with a computer.大家用电脑取代了那台旧机器。
  7.partly: ad.部分地,在一定程度上
  What you say is partly true.你说的话一部分是真实的。
  His attractiveness is partly due to his self-confidence.他的魅力部分是由于他的自信。
  8.undergovt.经历,经受;忍受
  The ship successfully underwent sea trial in coastal waters.那条船在近海水域试航成功。
  He had undergone great hardship in bringing up his five children.
  他受了不少苦才把五个孩子抚养成人。

  9.litter v./n.乱丢,乱丢的垃圾
  例: litter is garbage。 垃圾:rubbish,refuse,waste,disposal
  以-sis结尾的名词变复数,变sis-ses .词组 :
phrases
  1.to sacrifice to: 献祭;为而牺牲;

  It was the practice of these people to sacrifice to their gods when rain had not fallen.
  这些人有祭神求雨的习俗。

  They are prepared to sacrifice everything to achieve victory.他们准备牺牲一切去争取胜利。
  2.to do research into: 进行的研究
  They are doing some fascinating research into the language of bees.
  他们正在对蜜蜂的语言进行一些有趣的研究。

  Research into atomic energy should be conducted with a view to its peaceful use.
  研究原子能应该服务于和平的目的。

  3.be central to: ..极为重要的,是...的重点
  Reducing inflation is central to the governments economic policy.
  缩减通货膨胀是政府经济政策的重点。

  Community involvement is central to our plan.群众参与对于大家计划的实施非常重要。
  4.to aim for: 瞄准;以为目标
  We are aiming for a 50% share of the German market.
  大家的目标是取得德国市场50%的份额。

  She was aiming for a promotion.她想获得提升。

  课文精讲:
  Sacrificed to Science?
  Professor Colin Blakemore works at Oxford University Medical School doing research into eye problems and believes that animal research has given humans many benefits:

  1.句中doing research into eye problems 是一个现在分词短语作状语,起补充说明的作用;believes works 的并列谓语;that 引导的从句作believe的宾语从句。
  本句译文:科林·布莱克默教授任职于牛津大学医学院,正在对眼睛疾病进行研究,他认为,用动物进行研究给人带来了很多好处。

  
The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics, vaccines and treatments for diabetes, cancer, developmental disorders...most of the major medical advances have been based on a background of animal research and development.There are those who think the tests are simply unnecessary.The International Association Against Painful Experiments on Animals is an organization that promotes the use of alternative methods of research which do not make animals suffer.Their spokesman Colin Smith says:
  make animals suffer 中的“suffer”是其实是不带“to”的不定式,是不定式作宾补的结构。

  Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results.People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work.We only have to look at some of the medical mistakes to see this is so.
  
But Professor Blackmore stresses:
  It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals.
The famous example of thalidomide is a case for more animals testing, not less.The birth defects that the drug produced were a result of inadequate testing.If thalidomide were invented today, it would never be released for human use because new tests on pregnant animals would reveal the dangers.
  2.本句用了虚拟语气,是与现在事实相反的假设。虽然没有用虚拟条件句的形式,但表示虚拟的意义。因为编辑认为,药品不经动物实验就用在人身体上的可能性极小。
  that 引导的定语从句修饰先行词drugs。把本句改为虚拟条件句:It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people if they had not been thoroughly tested on animals.本句译文:如果把还没有在动物身上彻底实验过的药物用在人身上,那是完全不负责任和不道德的。

  3.为了避免重复,less后面省略了animal testing.句意为:著名的萨立多胺的例子就说明应该对动物进行更多的试验,而不是更少。

  4.本句也是一句表示与现在情况相反的虚拟条件句。在虚拟条件中,动词be 不管用于什么人称都用were“because”引导的从句为原因状语从句。

  本句译文:如果萨立多胺是今天发明的,它就决不会用在人身上,因为对怀孕的动物的新试验将会发现这种危险。
  Another organization that is developing other methods of research is FRAME.This is the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments.It recognizes that many experiments still have to be done on animals and is aiming for Reduction,Refinement and Replacement of animals in experiments.In 1981, it established a research programme to improve and expand non-animal testing.Increasingly, new technology is making it easier for us to find alternative methods of testing.Computer models can be used to simulate the way that cells work and to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals.
Data from previous animal experiments is used to develop a computer model which will predict what will happen if you add a chemical with an unknown biological effect to a substance. The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments.5.此句中to simulate the way to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals 是并列状语,用来表示使用计算机模型的目的。 that cells work 是定语从句,修饰the way.本句译文:计算机模型可用来模拟细胞的活动方式和预报化学药品的毒性。
  6.在本句中,共有三个从句:

  名词+ which 引导的一个定语从句修饰名词model
  what 引导一个宾语从句,作动词predict 的宾语;
  if 引导一个条件状语从句,作happen的状语。其中add…to 是一个动词词组,意思是增加到…”
  本句译文:可用从以前的动物实验获取的数据来建立一个计算机模型,这个模型能够预报如果将某一生物效果不明的化学药品添加到另一种物质上将会出现什么情况。
  The Lethal Dose 50 test LD50 may also be replaced.In the original test, all the animals in a test group are given a substance until half of them die.The test indicates toxicity.A method using a fixed amount, which gives the same eventual information but uses fewer animals and does not require that they die, may replace the LD50.
Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects.
  7.该句的主干结构为“A method may replace the LD50.”“using a fixed amount ”“which gives the same eventual information but uses fewer animals and does not require that they die”分别是分词短语和定语从句做method的定语。
  本句译文:另一种方法是使用固定量的有毒物质,能够给出同样的最终信息,但使用较少的动物并且不需要它们死亡,这个方法可以代替LD50
  8.此句中that 引导的定语从句修饰techniques;因为从句过长,所以放到了主句谓语are now available 之后。这是由于修辞需要而引起的倒装。

  本句译文:现在已有很多别的新技术,使更多的研究能在试管里进行,以便发现化学药品是否产生有毒的生物效果。
  The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years.This is partly due to alternatives and partly to the fact that experiments are better designed so fewer need to be used ---healthier animals provide better experimental results.
For example, it used to take 36 monkeys to test a sample of polio vaccine, now it takes only 22.Also, lack of money has reduced the number of animals used — they are expensive to buy and expensive to keep.9.句中“that”引导同位语从句修饰the fact; fewer 之后省略了experiments 。其中due to 表示由于…”的意思。
  本句译文:这部分地是由于采用了替代的方法,部分地是由于实验比以前设计得更好,所以需要的动物就少了。
  Birmingham University now has Britains first department of Biomedical Ethics.Professor David Morton of the department is involved in animal research and is concerned with reducing animal suffering as much as possible.Animals spend 95% of their time in their cages and refinement also means making their lives better when not undergoing tests.This includes keeping them in more suitable cages, allowing social animals like dogs to live together and trying to reduce the boredom that these animals can experience.In Professor Mortons laboratory, rabbits live together in large runs, filled with deep litter and boxes that they can hide in.The researchers have also refined some experiments.In the US, one experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rats leg, leaving its leg paralysed.
In Mortons lab, the researcher cuts a small nerve in the foot.He can see if it can regrow and the rat can still run around its cage.10.句中 leaving its leg paralysed 是现在分词短语作 cutting 的结果状语,其中paralysed是宾语补语。
本句译文:在美国,进行一次神经再生实验要在老鼠腿上切掉一大段神经,结果就把它的腿弄瘫痪了。
  Even with these new developments in research, only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage.The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested, and Professor Blakemore believes that sometimes there are no alternatives:
  Wherever possible, for both ethical and scientific reasons, we do not use animals.
But cells live in animals and we can only really see how they behave when they are inside animals.We cannot possibly reproduce in a test tube or a computer model all the complex reactions of the body to a drug or a disease. When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, or diseases of the brain for example, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals.
  11.句中Wherever possible,的完整表达为Wherever it is possible,意为不管在哪里,只要有可能
  例如:Whenever possible, he would practice speaking English.
  不管什么时候,只要有可能他就练习说英语。

  本句译文:只要可能,为了道德的和科学的两种理由,大家不使用动物。
  12.句中all the complex reactions of the body to a drug or a diseasereproduce的宾语,因为过长所以放到状语in a test tube or a computer model.后面。

  本句译文:大家不可能在试管里或用计算机模型模拟出身体对药物或疾病的全部复杂反应。
  13.句中heart disease and its effect on the body disease of the brain research into 的并列宾语。“for example”是针对由when 引导的整个状语从句而言,因此译成汉语时应放到句首。

  本句译文:例如当研究心脏病和它对身体的影响时,或者当研究大脑疾病时,大家没有充分的代用品来代替动物。
  As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in experiments may decrease, but stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away.

  14.这是一个由but并列的两个分句。前一句中,as引导的从句作伴随时间状语,后半句中stopping testing on animals altogether 是动名词短语作主语,注意stop后面的非谓语动词的用法。(stop doing sth / stop to do sth
  本句译文:随着研究技术的日益先进,用于实验的动物的数量可能会减少,但距离彻底停止使用动物还很遥远。

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