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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B Childrens Self-esteem

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月07日

Text B Childrens Self-esteem

 

I.New Words
  title: esteemrespect 自尊心,尊重

  1.esteem vt./n. 尊重,敬重
  2.cope vi. 对付,妥善处理(with
  3.parenting n. 父母对孩子的养育
  4.tone n. 1.音调,音色;2.腔调,语气;3.[]声调,语调
  5.infant n. 婴儿,幼儿;a.婴儿的,幼儿的
  6.lovable a. 可爱的,讨人喜欢的
  7.manageable a. 易管理的
  8.unlovable a. 不可爱的;不讨人喜爱的
  9.worthless a. 1.无价值的,无用的;2.不足道的,不可取的
  10.ultimately ad. 最后,最终地
  11.self-defeating a. 1.自我挫败的;2.有违初衷的
  12.crisis([]crises) n. 1.危机;2.决定性时刻
  13.withdrawwithdrew; withdrawn vt.1.收回,提取;2.撤退,撤销
        vi. 1.撤退,退出; 2.退缩,逃避现实
  14.inconsiderate a. 不替别人考虑的;不体谅人的
  15.outcome n. 1.结果,结局;2.出路,出口
  16.reinforcement n. 增强,加固;强化
  17.tangible a. 1.可触摸的,可感知的;2.确实的,真实的
  18.attribute n. 1.属性,特征;2.[]定语
         vt. 归因与(to
  19.fold vt./vi. 折叠;对折;n. 褶(痕)
  20.appropriate a. 适合的,恰当的,相宜的
           同义词:proper
  
Phrases and Expressions
  1.to cope with 对付;处理

  2.no other...than 1.除外没有,只有;2.正是,就是
  3.to take advantage of 1.利用;2.占便宜
  4.to act out 1.将表演出来;2.(用行动)表示出来
  重点词汇:
  cope with =deal with
  unlovable的反义词:
lovable
  appropriate的同义词:
proper
  1.worthless : a.无价值的,无用的

  派生词:worth a. 有价值的,值得的
  She was criticized so much by her employers that she began to feel worthless. 她常常受到老板的批评,以至于开始感到自己无用了。
  The book is worth reading. 这本书值得读。
  Considerate 考虑 ,反义词:inconsiderate
  2.attribute : n./vt. 属性,特征,把归因于

  Organizing ability is an essential attribute for a good manager. 组织能力是一个好的管理者的基本特征。
  The doctors have attributed the cause of the illness to lack of proper nutrition.医生们把这种病的起因归于缺乏适当的营养。
  We attribute our success to being in the right place at the right time.大家把成功归因于天时地利。
  Phrases:
  1.to cope withto deal with : 对付,处理

  It is difficult to cope with such a complex matter. 处理这样一件复杂的事很困难。
  Could you give me something to help me cope with the pain?医生,你能不能给我一点东西止痛?
  2.no other … than : 外没有,只有;正是
  He has no books other than the Bible. 除圣经以外他没有别的书。
  He has visited no other place than Beijing. 他除了北京外没去过别的地方
  In his composition, there were no other errors than a few misspelled words.在他的作文里除了几个拼写错误的词外,没有别的错误。
  It was none other than Comrade Wang. 不是别人,正是王同志。
  3.to take advantage of : 利用
  They took full advantage of the hotels facilities. 他们充分利用旅馆的设备。
  She took advantage of my generosity. 她利用了我的慷慨。
  4.to act sth. out : 用行动表现… , 扮演角色
  The workers acted out their dissatisfaction with the management by going on a strike.工人们以罢工来表示他们对管理层的不满。
  Childrens negative feelings often get acted out in bad behavior.孩子们的消极情绪往往通过不好的行为表现出来。
  
  II.重点句子讲解
  Self-esteem is what people think about themselves - whether or not they feel valued - and when family members have self-respect, pride, and belief in themselves, this high self-esteem makes it possible to cope with the everyday problems of growing up.1
  1.Self-esteem is what people think about themselves - whether or not they feel valued - and when family members have self-respect, pride, and belief in themselves, this high self-esteem makes it possible to cope with the everyday problems of growing up.
  该句的主干是由and连接的两个并列句。前一句,what引导表语从句,破折号之间的部分是对表语从句的说明。后一句,是一个复合句,when引导状语从句,主句中用了make it possible to do sth.的结构,it 为形式宾语,不定式短语是实际宾语。

  这一段告诉大家什么是自尊心,自尊心是人们对自己的看法 - 他们是否感到受重视-当家庭成员都拥有自尊自豪和自信时,这种高度的自尊心就能使他们应付成长中的日常问题。
  Successful parenting begins by communicating to children that they belong, and are loved for no other reason than just because they exist. 2Through touch and tone of voice parents tell their infants whether or not they are valued, special, and loved and it is these messages that form the basis of the childs self-esteem. When children grow up with love and are made to feel lovable despite their mistakes and failures, they are able to interact with others in a responsible, honest, and loving way. A healthy self-esteem is a resource for coping when difficulties arise, making it easier to see a problem as temporary, manageable, and something from which the individual can emerge.3

  2.Successful parenting begins by communicating to children that they belong, and are loved for no other reason than just because they exist.
  此句参看教材229页注释1no other … than“不是别的,正是
…”
  communicate sth. to sb. 意为使某人知道某物/某事,由于sth.的部分是由that引导的名词性从句,因为过长,所以后置。

  本句的意思是:成功的育儿之道始于让孩子知道,他们属于这个家庭,他们受宠爱没有别的原因,就是因为他们自身的存在。
  
3.A healthy self-esteem is a resource for coping when difficulties arise, making it easier to see a problem as temporary, manageable, and something from which the individual can emerge.
  "resource" 的意思是:(解决困难或获得成功的)办法,手段

  前面一句是主系表结构,而making之后的部分是现在分词短语作状语。
  本句的意思是:健康的自尊心是困难出现时解决困难的手段,它使人们比较容易把问题看成是暂时的,可以克服的,并且在解决问题中个人才可以崭露头角。
  If,however, children grow up without love and without feelings of self-worth, they feel unlovable and worthless and expect to be cheated, taken advantage of, and looked down upon by others.4Ultimately their actions invite this treatment, and their self-defeating behavior turns expectations into reality. They do not have the personal resources to handle everyday problems in a healthy way, and life may be viewed as just one crisis after another. Without a healthy self-esteem they may cope by acting out problems rather than talking them out or by withdrawing and remaining indifferent toward themselves and others.5
These individuals grow up to live isolated, lonely lives, lacking the ability to give the love that they have never received.
  4.If
however, children grow up without love and without feelings of self-worth, they feel unlovable and worthless and expect to be cheated, taken advantage of , and looked down upon by others.
  take advantage of 利用,运用; look down upon : 看不起 轻视

  注意三个不定式的被动态并列
  本句的意思是:然而,如果孩子成长过程中没有得到爱,没有感觉自我的价值,他们就会觉得自己不讨人喜欢,毫无用处,总预想自己会被别人欺骗,利用和看不起。
  
5.Without a healthy self-esteem they may cope by acting out problems rather than talking them out or by withdrawing and remaining indifferent toward themselves and others.
  rather than 而不是并列两个动名词短语

  本句的意思是:没有健康的自尊心,他们处理问题时,不是把问题谈出来,而是用行动把问题表现出来,或是采取退缩和对自己和他人保持冷淡的态度。
  Self-esteem is a kind of energy, and when it is high, people feel like they can handle anything. It is what one feels when special things are happening or everything is going great. A word of praise, a smile, a good grade on a report card, or doing something that creates pride within oneself can create this energy. When feelings about the self have been threatened and self-esteem is low, everything becomes more of an effort. It is difficult to hear, see, or think clearly, and others seem rude, inconsiderate, and rough. The problem is not with others, it is with the self, but often it is not until energies are back to normal that the real problem is recognized.6

  
6.It is not until energies are back to normal that the real problem is recognized.
  强调句,强调时间状语。直到本句的意思是:直到自尊心恢复正常时,真正的问题才能被认识。

  Children need help understanding that their self-esteem and the self-esteem of those they interact with have a direct effect on each other. For example, a little girl comes home from school and says, "I need lovingscause my feelings got hurt today." The mother responds to her childs need to be held and loved.7
If instead the responds to her childs need to be held and loved. If instead the mother said she was too busy to hold the little girl the outcome would have been different.
  
7.The mother responds to her childs need to be held and loved.
  句中to be held and loved 是不定式作need的后置定语。

  本句的意思是:这个母亲回应了孩子对拥抱和爱抚的需要。

  The infants self-esteem is totally dependent on family members, and it is not until about the time the child enters school that outside forces contribute to feelings about the self. 6A child must also learn that a major resource for a healthy self-esteem comes from within. Some parents raise their children to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement through practices such as paying for good grades on report cards or exchanging special privileges for good behavior.8The child learns to rely on others to maintain a high self-esteem and is not prepared to live in a world in which desirable behavior does not automatically produce a tangible reward such as a smile, money, or special privileges.9

  8.Some parents raise their children to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement through practices such as paying for good grades on report cards or exchanging special privileges for good behavior.
  句中to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement是不定式作目的状语

  through …behavior 是介词短语作方式状语。
  本句的意思是:一些家长培养孩子的自尊心不是通过实践依赖内在的强化力量,而是依赖外来因素,例如成绩单分数高时给孩子钱,或者孩子表现好时给他们好处。
  
9.The child learns to rely on others to maintain a high self-esteem and is not prepared to live in a world in which desirable behavior does not automatically produce a tangible reward such as a smile, money, or special privileges.
  in which 引导定语从句。

  本句的意思是:孩子就学会依赖别人来保持较强的自尊心,因而对生活在这样一个世界里缺乏准备:即好的表现不会自动带来可以看得到的回报,如微笑,金钱或好处。
  Maintaining a healthy self-esteem is a challenge that continues throughout life. One family found that they could help each other identify positive attitudes. One evening during a electric storm the family gathered around the kitchen table, and each person wrote down two things that they liked about each family member. These pieces of paper were folded and given to the appropriate person, who one by one opened their special messages. The father later commented, "It was quite an experience, opening each little piece of paper and reading the message. The father later commented, "It was quite an experience, opening each little piece of paper and reading the message. I still have those gifts, and when Ive had a really bad day, I read through them and I always come away feeling better."10

  10.I still have those gifts, and when Ive had a really bad day, I read through them and I always come away feeling better.
  本句中come away 意为离开,是指编辑在读完这些纸条后离开,是口语的用法。

  feeling better 是现在分词短语作伴随状语。
  本句的意思是:我至今还保留着这些礼物,而每当我哪天运气不佳,心情不好的时候,读一遍这些条子,心情就会变得好多了。
  The foundation of a healthy family depends on the ability of the parents to communicate messages of love, trust, and self-worth to each child. This is the basis on which self-esteem is built, and as the child grows, self-esteem changes from a collection of others feelings to become personal feelings about the self. Ultimately a persons self-esteem is reflected in the way he or she interacts with others.

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