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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Leisure and Leadership

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月07日

Text A Leisure and Leadership

 

I.课文概况
  title:
  leisure: free time, spare time, freedom from work 休闲

  lead v. 领导 a. 领导的 n. 领导;铅
  leader n. 领导人;leadership n. 导向,引导
  第一部分:现代人越来越重视休闲活动与生活质量。
  Paras.1-2 As far as "quality of life" is concerned, leisure plays an important role in life.
  第二部分:不同的人对休闲时间的利用也不一样,主要取决于他们的工作性质和生活方式。

  Paras.3-6 The specific use of leisure varies from person to person.
  第三部分:大家需要从社会中获得各种兴趣。大众在积极利用休闲方面需要指引和领导。

  Paras.7-9 We acquire interests in a variety of things and subjects from our society.
  第四部分:休闲有可能影响大家的工作。

  Para.10 Leisure will in return encourage academic work.
  (说明:研究表明,在就业工作中的劳动者不能发挥任何创造性,而玩乐的作用之一,就是帮助人们表达在就业工作中被压抑的潜在性,重新找回自我。在今后我国将会出现娱乐指数,出现休闲支出的年增长率,这可能成为国家经济发达与否的一个隐性指标。)


  II.New Words
  1.leadership n. 领导;领导人员

  2.research n./vi. 研究,调查
  3.attach vt.固定住, 系;附加;把(重点)放在
  4.possession n. 有,拥有
  5.satisfaction n. 满意,满足
  6.relaxation n. 松弛,放松
  7.desirable a. 称心的,合意的,理想的
  8.occupation n. 占领;占有;职业
  9.portray vt. 描绘,描写
  10.urban a. 城市的,都市的
  11.stressful a. 紧张的,压力重的
  12.loom vi. 隐隐呈现,逼近
  13.renewal n. 更新,重新开始
  14.underlie vt. 支撑;构成
  15.acquire vt. 获得,得到
  16.recognition n. 认出,承认
  17.impart vt. 分给,给予

  18.positive a. 明确的,确实的;积极的;正的,阳性的
  19.motivate vt. 作为的动机;激发
  20.relevant a. 贴切的,中肯的
  21.communicator n. 传播者,传播工编辑
  22.participation n. 参加,参与
  23.attainment n. 达到,到达
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.be concerned with 关于,涉及,忙于;关心,关切

  2.to attach importance to 认为很重要
  3.to take to 开始从事;养成的习惯
  4.to put … to use 使用,利用
  5.be relevant to 有关
  6.on the part of 而言
  7.to set … as objective 作为目标
  词汇精讲:
  1.attach :vt. 固定住,系;附加;把(重点)放在

  She attached a chain to the dogs collar. 她把链条拴在狗的项圈上。
  She attaches great importance to being financially independent.
  她认为在经济上独立很重要。

  Passengers should attach labels to their bags before boarding the airplane.
  旅客在登机前必须在提包上拴上标签。

  2.possession: n.有,拥有,pl.财产(总称,不强调每件东西的价值)
  对比
belongings n.
  派生词:possess v. 拥有,有

  He lost most of his possessions during the war.
  战争期间他丢失了大部分财产。

  
Hes had possession of the house for ten years.
  他拥有这所房产已有十年。

  She has never really been interested in material possessions.
  她从未对物质财富产生过兴趣。

  satisfy v. 满意
  relax v. 放松
  3.desirablea.称心的,合意的,理想的
  派生词:desire v.希翼,愿望
  用法:用在It is desirable that …句型中,that 从句里谓语动词要用(should) + 动词原形。
  It is desirable that he should attend the meeting.
  他参加会议是最理想的了。

  He has a highly desirable job.他有一份非常称心的工作。
  We desire your early reply to this inquiry.
  大家期待对这个询问早日回复。

  occupy v.占领,占用
  describe 描绘
  suburban a.郊外的
  stress v./n. 紧张, 压力
  renewal v. 重新开始,更新
  lie v. 过去式和过去分词:lay, lain; 现在分词:lying
  lay v. 放置 过去式和过去分词:
laid, laid
  4.acquirevt. 获得,得到 同义词
obtain v.
  
She acquired an original painting by Van Gogh.
  她得到了一幅梵高的原画。

  I acquired a little Spanish while I was in Peru.
  我在秘鲁时学到了一点西班牙语。

  区别:acquire
require
  require v. 需要,需求

  recognize v. 认出 认识
  impart 同义词:give
  5.positivea.明确的,确实的;积极的,

  反义词:negative a. 消极的,否定的
  active a. 积极的
  反义词:passive a. 消极的
  He gave positive instructions. 他给了明确的指示。
  Can you be positive about what you saw? 你能肯定你所见到的东西吗?
  He always adopts a positive attitude when correcting students mistakes.
  他在纠正学生的错误时总是采取积极的态度。

  Motivate激励,鼓励讲时,同义词:
  encourage v. 激励,鼓励
  6.relevant : a. 贴切的,中肯的,与有关的
  派生词:relevance n. 相关; irrelevant adj. 不相关的,不贴切的
  用法:be relevant to 相关
  Topics for conversation should be relevant to the experience and interests of the students.
  谈话的题目应该与学生的经历与兴趣有关。

  Any relevant information should be given to the police. 任何有关信息都应交给警察。
  His colour isnt relevant to whether he is a good lawyer. 他的肤色与他是否是个好律师无关。
  communicator n. 传播者、发报机。其动词为:
  communicate v. 交流
  communicator n. 传播者;发报机
  participant n. 参加者 a.参加的
  participate v.参加
  attain v.完成,达到
  词组:
  1.be concerned with:关于,关切,关注

  Her job is something concerned with computers 她的工作与电脑有关。
  Your parents are concerned with your health.你父母总是很关心你的健康。
  相关词组:be concerned about 关心,担心
  2.to attach importance to 认为很重要
  3.to take to 养成.. 的习惯;开始喜欢
  
She was so depressed she took to drugs.
  她极度沮丧以至染上了吸毒的习惯。

  Shes taken to tennis like a duck to water.
  她开始喜欢上网球,而且如鱼得水。

  相关词汇:take up 从事,占据;take over 接管,接任;take on 具有,承担,呈现
  4.to put…to use 使用;利用
  to put to good use 充分利用
  5.on the part of : 而言
  There was no further hesitation, at least on his part, as to what was to be done.
  至少对他来说,关于下一步要做什么没有再犹豫。

  as to = as for 关于至于
  I have done nothing wrong on my part. 我什么也没做错。
  on ones part of 在某人这一方面
  6.to set … as objective:把作为目标
  The company tries to set the improvement of quality as their objective.
  这个企业把提高质量作为他们的目标。

  Schools should set students development in an all-round way as their objective.
  学校应该把学生的全面发展作为自己的目标。

  all round = all-around 全方位的
  be involved in 参与,介入
  to amount to 等价于,等同于,实际上
  to come into contact with 接触

  III.课文精讲
  第一部分:Paras.1--2
  
Observations and research findings indicate that people in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure and what they can do in their leisure time.
  
Observation (n.) → observe (v.)
  1.indicate vt. 指出,表明。 带有两个并列宾语从句, 分别由 that what 引导。

  观察与研究成果表明,生活在先进的工业化社会的人们越来越关心休闲的机会和休闲中他们能干些什么。
  The importance people attach to paid holidays and the rapid development of service for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern.
  2.此句主语较长(划线部分),分为两个部分, 即:"The importance people attach to paid holidays""paid holidays"意为带薪假期(人们对带薪休假的重视)和"the rapid development of services for mass entertainment and recreation"(大众娱乐服务的快速发展)。其中 "people attach to paid holidays"是定语修饰 "importance"

  人们赋予带薪休假的重要性和大众娱乐服务的快速发展是日益关注这一问题的标志。

  The term "quality of life" is difficult to define. It covers a very wide scope such as living environment, health, employment, foodfamily life, friends, education, material possessions, leisure and recreation, and so on. Generally speaking, the quality of life, especial as seen by the individual, is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual.
  3.Generally speaking, the quality of life, especial as seen by the individual, is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual

  "especially as seen by the individual" 是定语从句,其中的关系代词as 作主语,相当于which is,谓语动词中省去了is 。意思是"特别是在个人看来(个人所认为的生活质量)"
  词组 "in terms of" 的意思是根据,按照;在方面,就而言

  例如:In terms of education, every person should have opportunity.
  就教育来说,每个人都应该有机会。

  " to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual" 是定语从句修饰 " the degree"
  一般来说,生活质量,特别在个人看来,其意义是由这些不同的生活领域可以供个人享受或者可以使个人满意的程度来衡量的。
  词组" to … degree" 程度
  例如:Were all involved in this matter, but to different degrees.
  大家都与此事有牵连,但程度不一样。

  The number of terrorist attacks has increased to a frightening degree. 恐怖袭击的次数上升到一个令人恐惧的程度。
  第二部分:Paras.3--6
  
As activity carried out as one thinks fit during ones spare time leisure has the following functions: relaxation, recreation and entertainment, and personal development. The importance of these varies according to the nature of ones job and ones life-style. Thus, people who need to exert much energy in their work will find relaxation most desirable in leisure. Those with a better education and in professional occupations may tend more to seek recreation and personal development (e.g., cultivation of skills and hobbies) in leisure.
  
4.As activity carried out as one thinks fit during ones spare time leisure has the following functions: relaxation, recreation and entertainment, and personal development.
  此句中第一个 as 是介词,意思是"作为"" carried out as one thinks fit during ones spare time" 是过去分词短语作定语修饰activity 。第二个as 是连词,引导方式状语从句,修饰动词词组 "carried out"

  作为空闲时进行的自己认为适当的活动,休闲具有下列功能:放松、娱乐、个人发展。
  词组"carry out" 意思是完成,实现,贯彻,实行

  
5.people who need to exert much energy in their work will find relaxation most desirable in leisure.
  exert v.尽全力,努力,施加,发挥,行使,产生影响

  在工作中需要付出很多精力的人,更渴望休闲时放松。
  The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual. Even the same leisure activity may be used differently by different individuals. Thus, the following are possible uses of television watching, a popular leisure activity: a change of experience to provide "escape" from the stress and strain of work; to learn more about what is happening in ones environment; to provide an opportunity for understanding oneself by comparing other peoples life experiences as portrayed in the programmes.
  
6.The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.
  对休闲的利用,人与人不同。

  7.Thus, the following are possible uses of television watching, a popular leisure activity: a change of experience to provide "escape" from the stress and strain of work; to learn more about what is happening in ones environment; to provide an opportunity for understanding oneself by comparing other peoples life experiences as portrayed in the programmes.
  句中a popular leisure activity:television watching的同位语,冒号后边的三个并列成分用来说明看电视的不同利用。

  (1A change of experience to provide "escape" from the stress and strain of work;
  改变感受来逃避工作的压力和紧张

  (2To learn more about what is happening in ones environment.
  更多了解自己周围正在发生的一切

  (3To provide an opportunity for understanding oneself by comparing other peoples life experiences as portrayed in the programmes.提供机会理解自己,通过对比节目中描绘的别人的经历。
  In an urban society in which highly structured, fast-paced and stressful work looms large in life, experiences of a different nature, be it television watching or bird-watching, can lead to a self-renewal and a more "balanced" way of life.
  8.本句中" in which highly structured, fast-paced and stressful work looms large in life" 是定语从句修饰 " urban society" "In a urban society …in life" 是整个句子的状语。主句的主语是experiences,谓语是
can lead to ……
  loom v.(危险)逼近,朦胧出现

  短语 loom large 意思是"显得严重(突出),阴影逼近
  " be it television watching or bird-watching" 是让步状语从句,省去了连接词whether, 系动词be 放到了主语it 之前。不倒装的形式为:
  whether it is television watching or bird-watching

  在城市社会中,结构紧密、节奏快捷、充满压力的工作笼罩着人们的生活,某种不同性质的经历,不管是看电视还是看鸟,都能导致自我更新和一种更加平衡的生活方式。
  Since leisure is basically self-determined, one is able to take to ones interests and preferences and get involved in an activity in ways that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction.
  9.Since 引导原因状语从句,that 引导定语从句

  由于休闲基本上是自己决定的事,个人就可以培养自己的兴趣和爱好,并以能为自己带来享乐和满足的方式参与某项活动。
  第三部分:Paras.7--9
  
Our likes and dislikes, tastes and preferences that underlie our choices of such activities as reading books, going to the cinema, camping, or certain cultural pursuits, are all related to social contexts and learning experiences. We acquire interests in a variety of things and subjects from our families, schools, jobs, and the mass media. Basically, such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
  
10.Our likes and dislikes, tastes and preferences that underlie our choices of such activities as reading books, going to the cinema, camping, or certain cultural pursuits, are all related to social ontexts and learning experiences.
  that引导定语从句修饰
our likes and dislikes, tastes and preferences.
  大家的喜爱与厌恶、品味与偏爱决定大家选择这样的活动,如:读书、看影片、野营、或者某些学问追求,所有这些活动均与社会环境和学习经历有关。

  11.Basically, such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and of a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
  此句中的两个that 从句都是同位语从句,分别修饰recognition belief

  基本上说,上述态度相当于一个共识:休闲是生活的一个重要方面;相当于一个信念:休闲能够并且应该充分利用。
  amount to:达到,到之多;相当于, 例如:

  My income for that year amounts to $10000 . 那一年我的收入达10000美金。
  Your words amount to a refusal. 你的话相当于拒绝。
  Professional workers in recreation services, too, will find that to impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways. Hence, it can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes, interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure. Influence of this kind is a form of leadership.
  
12.Professional workers in recreation services, too, will find that to impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways
  此句中find 后是that 引导的宾语从句,在宾语从句中,从句的主语是动词不定式 " to impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public" , 谓语是系表结构" is essential"

  "for" 之后的部分是介词短语作essential 的状语,表示目的。

  从事娱乐业的专业工编辑也会发现,培养大众积极的休闲态度对促进他们以创造性的,满意的方式利用休闲时间十分必要。
  13.Hence, it can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes, interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure.
  此句的主干结构是主语从句it 作形式主语,真正的主语是 "that the people …. handle leisure"。在主语从句中,主语是the people"with whom we come into contact in these various contexts" 是其定语。大家在这些不同环境中接触的人”" come into contact with" 是固定搭配表示相联系接触 在本句中,介词 "with" 提前到whom 前面。谓语是are all likely to have exerted some influence“很可能产生某些影响

  "shaping 后接三个并列宾语,即our attitudes, interests skills; relevant to how we handle leisure 是形容词短语作后置定语修饰skills , 其中的how we …relevant to 的宾语从句。
  因此,可以这么说,大家在不同环境中接触的人都可能对形成大家的态度、兴趣、甚至对如何处理休闲时间的技巧产生某些影响。
  Parents, teachers in schools, work associates and communicator in or using the mass media are all capable of arousing our potential interests. For example, the degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in games, sports and cultural pursuit are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.
  
14.Parents, teachers in schools, work associates and communicator in or using the mass media are all capable of arousing our potential interests.
  父母、学校的老师、工作中的同事、大众媒体的传播工编辑都能对大家的兴趣产生潜在的影响。

  arousing 动名词的原形动词为arouse ,意思是唤醒,唤起,鼓励,引起
  
15.For example, the degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in games, sports and cultural pursuit are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.
  此句主语部分中心词是the degree the ways, 其后各接一个由介词+ which 引导的定语从句。由于两个定语从句除了介词不同外,其他部分相同,所以第一个定语从句省去了与第二个定语从句相同的部分。

  学校鼓励参加游戏、运动和学问活动的程度和方式可能对形成学生的休闲态度起一定作用。
  第四部分:Paras.10
  
Schools usually set as their educational objective the attainment of a balanced development of the person. The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.
  
16.Schools usually set as their educational objective the attainment of a balanced development of the person.
  句中 "set … as objective" 看作是目标 " the attainment of a balanced development of the person; set 的宾语。 " as their educational objective 是宾语补足语,因为宾语较长,所以后置。

  学校常常把达到个人均衡发展定为它们的教育目标。
  The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.
  该句是 " the more … , the more …." 的句型。 表示
…”
  对此追求得越认真,就越可能鼓励人们对待休闲和学术工作持积极态度。

  附:重点句
  1.The importance people attach to paid holidays and the rapid development of service for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern.
  
2.Generally speaking, the quality of life, especial as seen by the individual, is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual.
  
3.As activity carried out as one thinks fit during ones spare time leisure has the following functions: relaxation, recreation and entertainment, and personal development.
  
4.Thus, the following are possible uses of television watching, a popular leisure activity: a change of experience to provide "escape" from the stress and strain of work; to learn more about what is happening in ones environment; to provide an opportunity for understanding oneself by comparing other peoples life experiences as portrayed in the programmes.
  
5.In an urban society in which highly structured, fast-paced and stressful work looms large in life, experiences of a different nature, be it television watching or bird-watching, can lead to a self-renewal and a more "balanced" way of life
  
6.Our likes and dislikes, tastes and preferences that underlie our choices of such activities as reading books, going to the cinema, camping, or certain cultural pursuits, are all related to social contexts and learning experiences.
  
7.Basically, such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and of a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
  
8.Professional workers in recreation services, too, will find that to impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways.
  
9.Hence, it can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes, interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure.
  
10.Parents, teachers in schools, work associates and communicator in or using the mass media are all capable of arousing our potential interests.
  
11.For example, the degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in games, sports and cultural pursuit are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.
  12.The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.

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