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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B  Predicting Earthquakes

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text B  Predicting Earthquakes

 

New Words

  1.earthquake n. 地震

  2.warning n. 警告;警报
  a.警告的
  3.forecast vt. 1.预测,预报;2.预示
  Eg: They forecast a large drop in unemployment over the next two years.
  他们预测,在未来的两年中失业率会大大下降。

  Snow has been forecasted for tonight. 预报今晚有雪。
  同义词:predict v. 预测,预言(参见Unit 1 生词)
  4.giant n. 1.巨人;2.巨物,巨大的动物
  a. 巨大的
  5.shift vt./vi. 替换;转移
  n. 1.转换,转移;2.轮班
  [同义词] switch change
  6.fault n. 1.缺点,毛病;2.错误,过失;

  7.seismic a. []断层,地震的
  8.precede vt. 先于,比优先

  vi. 在前面,居前,领先
  9.radon n.
  10.decay vi. 1.腐朽,腐烂;2.衰败;3.[]衰变
       vt. 使腐朽,使腐烂
        n. 1.腐朽,腐烂;2.衰败
  11.radium n.
  12.underground a. 1.地下的;2.秘密的,隐蔽的
           ad. 1.在地下;
  13.speculate vi.思索;推测(on / upon, about
          vt.1.投机;2.思索,推测
  eg: So far, the police can only speculate on the possible motives for the killing.
  到目前为止,警方还只能推测这起杀人案的动机。

  Scientists have been speculating on the origin of life. 科学家们一直在思索生命的起源。
  speculator : 思索者, 投机者
  speculation: n.
  
speculative :a.
  14.subside vi. 1.沉淀;2.沉降,下沉;3.平静下来,平息,减退

  15.datum[]data n. 1.资料,材料;2.数据
  16.reliability n. 可靠性
  17.partial a. 1.偏袒的,偏心的,对偏袒(to);
  2.部分的,不完全的
  Eg: The judges decision should be partial to no parties. 法官的决定不应偏袒任何一方。
  The police have only a partial description of the suspect. 警察对嫌疑犯的描述是不完全的。
  18.up-to-date a. 1.最新的,现代化的;2.直至目前的
  Eg: They are up-to-date development on the computer industry. 它们是计算机工业的最新发展。
  An up-to-date map 最新版地图
  19.analyze vt. 分析
  20.eastern a. 1.东方的,东部的;2.向东方的,来自东方的
  western
  
southern
  
northern
  
Phrases and Expressions
  1.to work on 1.从事2.有影响

  2.to set up 1.设立,建立;2.建立,提出
  3.on the alert 警戒,处于戒备状态
  Eg: Passengers on buses should be on the alert against pick-pockets. 公共汽车上的乘客应提防扒手。
  Nuclear-armed bombers were on the alert during the crisis. 核武装轰炸机在危机期间处于警戒状态。
  be caused by 引起
  be involved in 卷入,投入,参与
  be associated with 与有关

  .重点句子讲解:

  1.They hope to develop an early warning system that can be used to forecast earthquakes so that lives can be saved. 他们希翼研究出一种能够用来预报地震的早期预警系统,以拯救生命。
  该句中that引导的定语从句修饰an early warning system
  so that 引导目的状语从句说明前边的复合句。
  2.The nations that are actively involved in earthquake prediction programs include Japan, China, Russia, and the United States.
  定语从句中短语 be involved in … “参加,参与

  Eg All the children were involved in the school play. 所有的孩子都参加了学校排练的剧。

  The four men were all involved in organizing and carrying out the murders. 这四个人都参与组织和实施了这些谋杀案。
  3.These networks are on the alert for warning signs that show the weakening of rock layers that can precede an earthquake.
  这些网络始终处于戒备状态,搜索地震前岩石可能松动的警告迹象。

  第一个定语从句修饰warning signs
  第二个定语从句修饰
the weakening of rock layers
  
4.Scientists speculate that the amount of radon increases in the ground when rocks layers shift, exposing new rocks, and thus more radon.
  科学家推测,当岩层位移时,露出新岩石,地下氡的含量会增加,因此就产生更多的氡。

  exposing new rocks , and thus more radon.分词短语作动词shift的结果状语
  5.However, all the scientists agree that more data is necessary to prove that radon levels in water are associated with the possible birth of an earthquake.
  be associated with : ….有关

  但是,所有科学家都同意还需要有更多的数据才能证明水中氡含量与可能发生地震之间有着联系。
  在宾语从句中又有一个that 引导的宾语从句
  6.While this is a small start, it is still a beginning.
  尽管这是一个小的开端,但毕竟还只是处于初始阶段。

  While 在本句中引导让步状语从句,意为尽管,虽然
  
conj.
  (1)引导让步状语从句

  (2)引导时间状语从句时表示之间
  (3)表示两个并列关系的转折,而,然而

   n.一会儿

   eg. Wait a while 等一会儿
   still conj. 毕竟,尽管如此

   ad.还,仍然,仍旧
   n.静物

   a.静止的,不动的
   stand still 站着不动
  
  .补充语法:

  不定式在句中的作用
  不定式除了不可以作谓语之外,它可以担任句子的成分有:主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。 常用来表示未来要做的事,以及愿望、打算、决心等。
  1.主语
  To sum up experience is important.
  It is important to sum up experience. it 为形式主语)

  2.表语
  Our aim goal is to pass the exam. Our objective is to master English.
  master v. 掌握

  n.主人
  3.宾语
  常用不定式作宾语的及物动词有:
  want, like, wish, hate, hope, expect, manage, try, desire, intend, prefer, mean, decide, promise, agree, disagree, refuse, choose, long(渴望), plan, offer, happen, fail, pretend, care, learn, continue start, begin, forget,
  例句:
Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
  (另外不定式还可以作一些形容词的宾语,如:able, unable, afraid , willing, sure, free, please, sorry, ready, glad, eager

  4.定语

  不定式作定语一定要放在所修饰的中心词之后。

  (1With the ability to "see", robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials.
  (2
These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do.
  (3
I have a few words to say.
  5.状语

  用于修饰动词、形容词、副词及整个句子,表示目的、结果、原因、程度等。
  结果状语
  Atoms are too small to be seen.
  
…deep areas of mines too dangerous for humans to enter.
  目的状语

  We should be quiet so as not to disturb others.
  
He sold newspapers in order to earn money for his family.
  6.补语

  不定式常用于下列单词后作补语:ask, enable, tell, force
  He asks me to call him at 10 a.m.(不定式作宾语补语)

  I am asked to call him at 10 a.m.(不定式作主语补语)
  注意:I notice him leave the classroom.(宾语补语可省略不定式符号to
  He is noticed to leave the classroom.(主语补语不可省略不定式符号to
  表示感觉类的词,后面的宾语补语可以省略,但这类词所在的句子如果变为被动语态,后面的“to”必须加上,即主语的补语,不能省略“to”
  不定式有三种时态,也有被动语态 各举一例)
  I am willing to do sth.
  
I am glad to be working with you.
  
I am sorry to have kept you waiting.
  
It is a pleasure for me to be invited.

  .练习


  一.单词、词组英译汉
  efficiency increasingly install personnel expose reduction completion specific switch critical intensity scale defective in that in question plenty of

  三、汉译英

  1.近几年,机器人的应用越来越广泛和深入。
  In recent years, the use of robots is becoming increasingly wider and deeper.
  
Robots are used more and more widely and deeply in recent years.
  
Robots have been increasingly used wider and deeper in recent years.
  2.新开发的机器人有触觉,可以看见物体,还能做决定。

  The newly-developed robots have a sense of touch, are able to see objects, and can make decision as well.
  3.机器人在汽车行业应用广泛。

  Robots are employed widely in the automotive industry.
  
The use of robots in the automotive industry is prevalent.
  4.感光材料、数字照相机都是照相器材。

  Light–sensitive materials and digital cameras are all photographic equipment.
  5.机器人与自动化机器有重大的区别。

  There is a significant difference between robots and automatic machines.
  
There are major differences between robots and automatic machines.

  历年考题:

  1.Most todays robots are employed in the automotive industry, _____ they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting.99.4
  
A.as
  
B.which
  
C.when
  
D.where
  答案:
D
  考点:where 引导的非限定定语从句,修饰
automotive industry.
  2.Robots differ from automatic machines in _____ after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed to be another one. 00.4

  
A.which
  
B.that
  
C.how
  
D.whether
  答案:
B
  考点:in that 复合连词引导原因状语从句,表示在于

  3.Robots , already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning ______see in other industries as well.00.4)(01.10
  答案:
to be seen
  考点:begin to do sth. 所以用动词不定式,而且用被动式。

  4.Anyone ______wantto understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.00.10)(01.4
  答案:wanting
  考点:现在分词短语作定语修饰anyone

  5.The nations that ______ actively _______involve
in earthquake prediction programs include Japan, China, Russia, and the United States.
  答案:
are involved
  考点:词组:
be involved in sth.
  6.汉译英:机器人将要在哪些领域替代人的工作呢?(00.10

  答案: In what field will robots take over human tasks?
  
7.It is not yet known ______ computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.
  
A.whether
  
B.if
  
C.that
  
D.how
  答案:
A
  考点:whether 引导的主语从句。

  8.Robots, ______become increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.
  答案:
becoming
  考点:现在分词作状语。

  Robots, becoming ______increase prevalent in factories, are programmed and engineered to do more jobs.
  答案:
increasingly
  9.There networks are on the ______ for warning signs that show the weakening of rock layers that can precede an earthquake.01.10

  A.eagerness   

  B.alarm
  
C.alert
  
D.guard
  答案:
C
  考点:Text B 中的短语
on the alert
  10.汉译英:近年来,计算机在各个领域的应用越来越广泛。

  
In recent years, the application of computers is becoming wider and wider in all fields.
  
In recent years, computers are used more and more widely in all fields.
  In recent years, computers have been increasingly used in all fields.

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