山西自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text B Predicting Earthquakes
Text B Predicting Earthquakes
1.earthquake n. 地震
2.warning n. 警告；警报
3.forecast vt. 1.预测，预报；2.预示
Eg: They forecast a large drop in unemployment over the next two years.
Snow has been forecasted for tonight. 预报今晚有雪。
同义词：predict v. 预测，预言（参见Unit 1 生词）
4.giant n. 1.巨人；2.巨物，巨大的动物
5.shift vt./vi. 替换；转移
[同义词] switch 、change
6.fault n. 1.缺点，毛病；2.错误，过失；
7.seismic a. [地]断层，地震的
8.precede vt. 先于…，比…优先
9.radon n. 氡
10.decay vi. 1.腐朽，腐烂；2.衰败；3.[原]衰变
11.radium n. 镭
12.underground a. 1.地下的；2.秘密的，隐蔽的
13.speculate vi.思索；推测（on / upon, about）
eg: So far, the police can only speculate on the possible motives for the killing.
Scientists have been speculating on the origin of life. 科学家们一直在思索生命的起源。
speculator : 思索者， 投机者
14.subside vi. 1.沉淀；2.沉降，下沉；3.平静下来，平息，减退
15.datum（[复]data） n. 1.资料，材料；2.数据
16.reliability n. 可靠性
17.partial a. 1.偏袒的，偏心的，对…偏袒（to）；
Eg: The judges decision should be partial to no parties. 法官的决定不应偏袒任何一方。
The police have only a partial description of the suspect. 警察对嫌疑犯的描述是不完全的。
18.up-to-date a. 1.最新的，现代化的；2.直至目前的
Eg: They are up-to-date development on the computer industry. 它们是计算机工业的最新发展。
An up-to-date map 最新版地图
19.analyze vt. 分析
20.eastern a. 1.东方的，东部的；2.向东方的，来自东方的
Phrases and Expressions
1.to work on 1.从事…；2.对…有影响
2.to set up 1.设立，建立；2.建立，提出
3.on the alert 警戒，处于戒备状态
Eg: Passengers on buses should be on the alert against pick-pockets. 公共汽车上的乘客应提防扒手。
Nuclear-armed bombers were on the alert during the crisis. 核武装轰炸机在危机期间处于警戒状态。
be caused by 由 … 引起
be involved in 卷入，投入，参与
be associated with 与有关
1.They hope to develop an early warning system that can be used to forecast earthquakes so that lives can be saved. 他们希翼研究出一种能够用来预报地震的早期预警系统，以拯救生命。
该句中that引导的定语从句修饰an early warning system 。
so that 引导目的状语从句说明前边的复合句。
2.The nations that are actively involved in earthquake prediction programs include Japan, China, Russia, and the United States.
定语从句中短语 be involved in … “参加，参与”
Eg ：All the children were involved in the school play. 所有的孩子都参加了学校排练的剧。
The four men were all involved in organizing and carrying out the murders. 这四个人都参与组织和实施了这些谋杀案。
3.These networks are on the alert for warning signs that show the weakening of rock layers that can precede an earthquake.
第二个定语从句修饰the weakening of rock layers
4.Scientists speculate that the amount of radon increases in the ground when rocks layers shift, exposing new rocks, and thus more radon.
exposing new rocks , and thus more radon.分词短语作动词shift的结果状语
5.However, all the scientists agree that more data is necessary to prove that radon levels in water are associated with the possible birth of an earthquake.
be associated with : 与….有关
6.While this is a small start, it is still a beginning.
eg. Wait a while 等一会儿
still conj. 毕竟，尽管如此
stand still 站着不动
To sum up experience is important.
It is important to sum up experience.（ it 为形式主语）
Our aim （goal） is to pass the exam. Our objective is to master English.
master v. 掌握
want, like, wish, hate, hope, expect, manage, try, desire, intend, prefer, mean, decide, promise, agree, disagree, refuse, choose, long（渴望）, plan, offer, happen, fail, pretend, care, learn, continue start, begin, forget,
例句：Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
（另外不定式还可以作一些形容词的宾语，如：able, unable, afraid , willing, sure, free, please, sorry, ready, glad, eager）
（1）With the ability to "see", robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials.
（2）These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do.
（3）I have a few words to say.
Atoms are too small to be seen.
…deep areas of mines too dangerous for humans to enter.
We should be quiet so as not to disturb others.
He sold newspapers in order to earn money for his family.
不定式常用于下列单词后作补语：ask, enable, tell, force
He asks me to call him at 10 a.m.（不定式作宾语补语）
I am asked to call him at 10 a.m.（不定式作主语补语）
注意：I notice him leave the classroom.（宾语补语可省略不定式符号to）
He is noticed to leave the classroom.（主语补语不可省略不定式符号to）
不定式有三种时态，也有被动语态 （ 各举一例）
I am willing to do sth.
I am glad to be working with you.
I am sorry to have kept you waiting.
It is a pleasure for me to be invited.
efficiency increasingly install personnel expose reduction completion specific switch critical intensity scale defective in that in question plenty of
In recent years, the use of robots is becoming increasingly wider and deeper.
Robots are used more and more widely and deeply in recent years.
Robots have been increasingly used wider and deeper in recent years.
The newly-developed robots have a sense of touch, are able to see objects, and can make decision as well.
Robots are employed widely in the automotive industry.
The use of robots in the automotive industry is prevalent.
Light–sensitive materials and digital cameras are all photographic equipment.
There is a significant difference between robots and automatic machines.
There are major differences between robots and automatic machines.
1.Most todays robots are employed in the automotive industry, _____ they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting.（99.4）
考点：where 引导的非限定定语从句，修饰automotive industry.
2.Robots differ from automatic machines in _____ after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed to be another one. （00.4）
考点：in that 复合连词引导原因状语从句，表示“在于”。
3.Robots , already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning ______（see） in other industries as well.（00.4）（01.10）
答案：to be seen
考点：begin to do sth. 所以用动词不定式，而且用被动式。
4.Anyone ______（want）to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.（00.10）（01.4）
5.The nations that ______ actively _______（involve） in earthquake prediction programs include Japan, China, Russia, and the United States.
考点：词组：be involved in sth.
答案： In what field will robots take over human tasks?
7.It is not yet known ______ computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.
8.Robots, ______（become） increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.
Robots, becoming ______（increase） prevalent in factories, are programmed and engineered to do more jobs.
9.There networks are on the ______ for warning signs that show the weakening of rock layers that can precede an earthquake.（01.10）
考点：Text B 中的短语 on the alert
In recent years, the application of computers is becoming wider and wider in all fields.
In recent years, computers are used more and more widely in all fields.
In recent years, computers have been increasingly used in all fields.