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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Improving Industrial Efficiency through Robotics

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text A Improving Industrial Efficiency through Robotics

 

.课文概况

  机器人在工业生产中的使用越来越普遍。目前大多数的机器人用于汽车工业,此外在别的工业领域虽然应用的程度低一些,(although to a lesser degree 但也开始出现。它们已经可以代替人进行一些工作。
  那么机器人与自动化机械有什么不同呢?它们的不同在于机器人完成某一特定任务后,可由计算机重新编制程序去完成另一项任务。
  现在科学家与工程技术人员正在研制新一代机器人,使机器人具有视觉、有触觉、并且能够做出关键性的决策。未来机器人将会在许多领域代替人的工作。
  Paras.1-3 Robots are used in many areas
  
Para.4 The difference between robots and other machines
  Paras.5-7 Technicians and engineers are trying to design new types of robots. will be able to see objects; will have a sense of touch; will make critical decisions.


  New Words

  1.efficiency n.1.效率;2.功效,效能,实力

  2.robotics n.[用作单]机器人学,机器人技术
  3.robot n.机器人;自动控制装置
  4.increasingly ad.不断增加地
  5.prevalent a.流行的,普通的
  6.automotive a.1.自动的,机动的;2.汽车的
  7.weld vt./n焊接
  8.spray n.1.浪花,水花;2.喷雾,喷雾状物
      vt.喷;向喷射;喷涂
      vi.喷;溅散
  9.cast vt.1.投,扔,抛,掷;2.投射(光,影,视线等)(on,at);3.浇铸,铸造
  n.1.投,掷;2.模具;3.演员(阵容)

  10.frame n.构架,框架
  11.install vt.安装
  12.appliance n.1.应用,适用;2.用具,器械
  13.calculator n.1.计算者;2.计算器
  14.radioactive a.[]放射性的;放射引起的
  15.personnel n.1.[集合名词 ]全体人员,全体职啼;2.人事(部门)
  16.expose vt.1.使暴露,使面临;2揭露,揭发
  17.radiaton n.1.放射,发光;2.放射物,辐射线,辐射能
  18.reduction n1.减少,减小;2.降级,降职;3.归纳,归并
  19.automatic a.1.自动的;2.无意识的,机械的
  20.reprogramme v.再次(重新)设定程序
  21.completion n.完成,结束;完满
  22.specific a.1.特有的,特定的;2.具体的,明确的
  23.switch n.1.开关,转换器;2.(思路、话题等的)转换
       vt.1.转换,改变(思路、话题等);
       vi.2.接通电流(on),切断电流(off
  24.critical a.1.批评(性)的,批判(性)的;2.表示谴责的,对感到不满的(of);3.紧要的,关键性的,危急的
  25.digital a.手指的,指状的;2.数字的,计数的
  26.camera n.照相机,摄影机
  27.light-sensitive a.光敏的
  28.intensity n.强烈,剧烈
  29.grayscale灰度(合不同黑白比例混合面得从黑到白的一系列色差灰色色调)
  30.brightness n.1.明亮,晴朗;2.聪敏,机灵
  31.scale n.1.刻度,表度;2.规模;3.比例(尺);4.[pl.]开平,磅秤
  32.shade n.1.荫,阴影;2.遮光物,罩
      vt.遮蔽,遮光
  33.calculation n.1.计算,计算结果;2.仔细考虑
  34.defective n.有缺点的;有缺陷的
  35.assemble vt.1.集合;2.装配
        vi.集合
  36.attendant n.1.侍者,服务员;2.出席者
  37.fireman n.消防队员
  38.housekeeper n.管理家务的主妇;女管家
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.to expose to  暴露;面临;曝露

  2.in that     在于,原因是
  3.in between   在中间;每间隔;在期间
  4.in question   正被谈论的  
  5.plenty of    大量的;丰富的

  词汇精讲
:
  1.efficiency : n . 效率,功效

  派生词:efficient a. 有效率的; inefficient a. 无效率的;inefficiency n. 无效率
  These machines have raised efficiency many times.
  A good manager is both competent and efficient. 好的经理应当是称职而且有效率的。

  区别:efficient effective
  efficient a .有效率的; effective a. 有效的

  2.robotics: 机器人学,机器人技术
  3.robot: 机器人;自动控制装置
  4.increasingly : ad. 日益,越来越多

  派生词:increase v. 增加,提高; increasing a. 越来越多的;
  He is increasingly rude to me. 他对我越来越粗鲁。
  This argument became increasingly bitter. 他们的争论越来越激烈。
  Bitter: 激烈的,怀恨在心的。
  Industrial production as a whole increased by 20 percent. 工业生产总体上增长了20%
  Itll be some time before supply can keep up with the increasing demand.
  Keep up with :赶上,同步。

  随着需求的不断增长,一段时间以后供应也会上升。
  5.prevalent: a. popular 流行的,普通的
  6.automotive : 1.自动的,机动的;2.汽车的
  automotive industry: 汽车工业
  7.weld vt./n. 焊接
  spot-welding: 点焊
  8.spray: n. 1.浪花,水花; 2. 喷雾,喷雾状物

   vt. 喷;向….喷射;喷涂
   vi. 喷;溅散
  spray painting: 喷漆
  9.cast : vt. 1. 投,扔,抛,掷;2.投射(光,影,视线等)(on, at; 3.浇铸,铸造
  n. 1.投,掷;2. 模具;3. 演员(阵容)
  10.frame n. 架构,框架
  11.install: vt. 安装
  12.appliance n. 1.应用,适用;2.用具,器械
  13.calculator n. 计算者; 2.计算器
  14.radioactive a. []放射性的;放射引起的
  15.personneln. 全体人员,全体职工;人事(部门)
  person: 可数名词
  people: 集合名词
  personal : a. 个人的
  派生词:person n. 人; personal a. 个人的,私人的

  All personnel will receive an extra week’s vacation. 全体人员将获得额外的一星期假期。
  The new director of the TV station is likely to make major change in personnel.
  电视台的新台长有可能做很大的人事变动。

  I cant insist upon my personal opinion. 我不能坚持个人的观点。
  16.exposevt. 暴露,揭露
  派生词:exposure n. 暴露,揭露
  用法:to expose to 暴露于之下;使面临
  Parents should not expose the children to violent program. 父母不应该让孩子接触暴力节目。

  When she went to college, Mary was exposed to a lot of new ideas.
  玛丽上大学后接触到许多新思想。

  We should expose children to new ideas. 大家应该让孩子们接触新思想。

  17.radiation: n. 放射,发光

  18.reduction : n.减少,减小
  reduce v. 减少,减小
  19.automatic : a. 自动的;无意识的
  auto-:前缀,表自动
  20.reprogramme: v. 再次(重新)设定程序
  21.completion: n. 完成,结束
  complete: v. 完成
  22.specific: a. 特有的,特定的
  special: 特殊的
  23.switch n. / v 开关,转换
  Changeshift :改变,变换,转换
  Having considered that problem, they switched their conversation to other matters.
  考虑了那个问题后,他们把话题转到其它问题上。

  None of us wishes to switch back to the old system. 大家谁也不愿意回复到旧制度。
  In the last three years, he switched from one profession to another.
  在过去的三年里,他从一个职业转向另一个职业。

  turn on/off: switch on/off 打开、接通/关闭
  24.critical: a. 批评的,对谴责的,紧要的,危急的
  criticize se: v. 批评
  criticism n. 批评
  派生词: criticize v. 批评,批判;criticism n. 批评; critic: n. 评论家
  His critical analysis was helpful. 他的批评性分析很有帮助。
  The patient was in a critical condition. 病人处于危险的情况。
  The old man was critical of the boys impolite behavior.
  那个老人不满意男孩的不礼貌行为。

  At the critical moment, we should be capable of facing any difficulties.
  
be capable of: be able to
  在关键时刻,大家应该有能力面对一切困难。

  He is critical of her ignorance of law. 对于她对法律的无知,他持批评态度。
  25.digital: a. 手指的,指状的; 2.数字的,计数的
  digit n. 数字、手(足)指
  26.camera: n. 照相机,摄影机
  27.light-sensitive: a. 光敏的
  28.intensity: n. 强烈;剧烈
  派生词: intense a. 强烈的,剧烈的

  名词后缀:intensity
  The pain increased in intensity. 疼痛加剧了。

  The intensity of the play left the audience numbed. 这部戏的紧张程度使观众麻木了。
  29.grayscale 灰度
  30.brightness n. 1.明亮,晴朗, 2. 聪敏,机灵
  31.scale n. 刻度;规模;比例尺

  They are making war preparations on a large scale. 他们正大规模地搞战备。
  The scale is an inch to the mile. 比例是用一英寸代表一英里。
  32.shade n. 阴影;遮光物
  shades of gray/red/green/blue(颜色变化的程度)
  33.calculation n.计算
  34.defective: a. 有缺点的,有缺陷的
  35.assemble: vt. 集合,装配
   vi.集合

  fit together:组装在一起
  36.attendant :n. 1.服务员,2.出席者
  attend: v. 出席
  37.fireman: n. 消防队员
  firefighter: 消防队员
  38.housekeeper: n.管理家务的主妇;女管家
  词组:phrases and expressions
  1.to expose to + 名词暴露,面临,接触

  例:一个接触了英语两年的学生
a student who has been exposed to English for 2 years
  你以前可能接触过这种思想
You may have exposed to this idea before.
  2.in that: 在于,原因是

  in that 不能引导定语从句
  in which 介宾结构,可引导定语从句
  but that: 若不是
  now that: 既然
  Men are different from other animals in that the former can create and use tools while the latter cannot. 人与动物的不同之处在于,人会制造和使用工具而其他动物则不能。
  I like the city, but I like the country better in that I have more friends in the country.
  我喜欢城市,但我更喜欢农村,因为在农村我有许多朋友。

  3.in between: 在中间.
  4.in question:正被谈论的

  the object…under consideration
  Where are the girls in question? 谈论中的女孩们在哪?

  That’s not the point in question. 那不是要考虑的问题。
  区别:in questionout of question
out of the question
  out of question 没有问题;

  To pass the exam is out of question. 通过考试没问题。

  out of the question 不可能
  Their victory is out of the question; theyve lost too many men.
  他们是不可能胜利的,他们损失的人太多。

  5.plenty of 充足,大量 = a lot of
  There was plenty of work for them to do. 有很多工作需要他们做。

  I have plenty of humorous tales. 我有许多幽默的故事。
  Tale: story
  work on: 从事

  Convert into
  
to convert into: to change…into

  .课文精讲


  第一部分: Paras.1—3
  
Robots, becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.
  
Para.1
  1.第一句中“ becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world” 是现在分词短语作伴随状语,插在主语和谓语中间(也可放在句首)。

   在翻译时可以按照原文语序,即机器人在所有发达国家的工厂和其它工业部门里日益得到普遍的应用,通过编程和策划在无人干预的条件下完成工业生产任务。
  engineer: v. 策划,设计,制造

  perform: 实行
  plant n. 工厂,车间,生产部门
  factory n. 工厂,制造厂
  Para.2
  
2.Most of todays robots are employed in the automotive industry, where they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies.
   take over: 接管

   lorry: 卡车
  where 引导非限制性定语从句,对主句起补充说明作用。翻译时,按照原文语序即可。目前大多数机器人用于汽车工业,它们按编程去承担轿车和卡车车身的焊接和喷漆这样的工作。
  
3.They also load and unload hot, heavy metal forms used in machines casting automobile and truck frames.
  此句中,“casting automobile and truck frames” 是现在分词词组作定语修饰machines, 意思是:铸造轿车和卡车框架的机械;而 “used in machines casting automobile and truck frames” 又是 “ metal forms” 的定语,因此本句的意思是:机器人还可用来装卸铸造轿车和卡车框架的机械上使用的炽热、笨重的金属铸模(构件)。

  Para.3   

  4.Robots, already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning to be seen, although to a lesser degree, in other industries as well.
   本句中, “already taking over human tasks in the automotive field” 是现在分词词组作非限定性定语,相当于一个非限制性定语从句。其中 “ although to a lesser degree是状语。 “ to … degree” 表示在某种程度上

   翻译:除了在汽车生产领域替代工人劳动外,机器人也开始在别的工业部门应用,虽然应用的程度上低一些。
  
5.There they build electric motors, small appliances, pocket calculators, and even watches.
  在其它领域机器人用来做电机,小的用具,袖珍计算器,甚至是手表。

  6.The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials, preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.
  句中“nuclear power ”:核电站

  “used in nuclear power plants” 是过去分词短语作定语修饰“the robots”此句话谓语是“ handle”意思是搬运,处理。
  prevent from : 阻止做….
  
eg. The medicine will prevent you from getting cold.
  “preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation” 是分词作状语。“prevent … from doing sth.”是固定搭配表示阻止
…”
  
These are the robots responsible for the reduction in job-related injuries in this new industry.
  be responsible for : ….负责任

   在新的工业领域中机器人用来减少所有与工作有关的事故的发生。

  第二部分 
Para.4
  
7.What makes a robot a robot and not just another kind of automatic machine?
   make 可带有双宾语

   译文:是什么使得一个机器人是机器人而不是一个自动化机器呢?
  例如: All work and no play made Jack a dull boy. 只工作不玩使杰克成了傻孩子。
  (只工作不玩耍,聪明孩子也变傻。 只会工作不会玩儿,杰克变成小傻孩儿。)
  8.Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
  在此句中, “ in that” 是复合连词。表示:原因是,因为,在于..” 可以看作是引导原因状语从句。

  与“in that” 相类似的复合连词还有:but that (若不是) now that (既然)等。
  (参看教材P.145的注释4中的例句)
  9.As an example, a robot doing spot welding one month can be reprogrammed and switched to spray painting the next
  句中doing spot welding one month 是分词短语作定语修饰robot
  the next相当于 the next month 与前边的one month 相呼应。
  本句意思是:例如,一个机器人这个月做点焊工作,下个月可以重新编程去做喷漆工作。
  
10.Automatic machines, on the other hand, are not capable of many different uses; they are built to perform only one task.
  自动化机床,没有能力去做许多不同用途,它们被制造出来只是做一件事情。


  第三部分 Paras.57
  
Para.5
  
39.The next generation of robots will be able to see objects, will have a sense of touch, and will make critical decisions.
   下一代机器人将会有视觉、触觉并且能够做关键性的决策。

  40. Engineers skilled in microelectronics and computer technology are developing artificial vision for robots.
  skilled是过去分词短语作定语

  artificial : 人工的
  在微电子学和计算机技术上有专长的工程技术人员正研制机器人的人工视觉。
  3.With the ability to "see", robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials.
  identify: 识别

  inspect: 检查
  介词短语中“to see” 是动词不定式作定语修饰 “ ability” “ out of …”表示。句中with the ability to see是作全句的状语。
  本句翻译:拥有了这种看的能力,机器人能够识别出不同种类的物体。
  4.One robot vision system uses electronic digital cameras containing many rows of light-sensitive materials.
  一种机器人的视觉系统是用含有光敏材料的数字摄像机制作成的。

  5.When light from an object such as a machine part strikes the camera, the sensitive materials measure the intensity of light and convert the light rays into a range of numbers.
  “ when light from an object such as a machine part strikes the camera,” 是一个状语从句。句中的 “from an object such as a machine part” 是介词短语作后置定语修饰light

  意为:当一个物体(如机器零件)上的光线照射到摄像机上时,… …
  主句中“ convert … into” 意思是转换成
…”
  例:
We converted the small bedroom into a second bathroom.
  大家把这个小卧室改成了另一个浴室。

  a range of : 一个….范围
  The numbers are part of a grayscale system in which brightness is measured in a range of values. One scale ranges from 0 to 15, and another from 0 to 255.
  翻译:数字是灰度系统的一部分,在灰度系统中,一个范围内的亮度用一些数字被测量表示。一个刻度范围是015,另一个是0225

  The 0 is represented by black. The highest number is white. The numbers in between represent different shades of gray.
  数字“0”代表黑色, “255”代表白色。这两个数字之间的是各种不同灰度的颜色。

  The computer then makes the calculations and converts the numbers into a picture that shows an image of the object in question.
  翻译:计算机将数字转变为图像,这些图像能够表明物体的形象。

  12.It is not yet known whether robots will one day have vision as good as human vision.
  本句的真正主语是 “ whether” 引导的主语从句, it 是形式主语;

  “ as good as human vision” 是后置定语修饰 “vision”

  注意此句按照原语序翻译较好。迄今尚不清楚机器人会不会有朝一日具有人眼那样的视力。
  
Technicians believe they will, but only after years of development.
  技术人员相信要使它变成现实,只能等待若干年之后。

  Para.6   
  1.Engineers working on other advances are designing and experimenting with new types of metal hands and fingers, giving robots a sense of touch.
  句中 working on other advances是现在分词短语作后置定语修饰
engineers.
  giving robots a sense of touch 是现在分词短语作结果状语。

  从事其它领域的工程师,正在设计新型的手和手指,以便给机器人增添触觉。
  Other engineers are writing new programs allowing robots to make decisions such as whether to discard defective parts in finished products. To do this, the robot will also have to be capable of identifying those defective parts.
  discard:抛弃

  defective:有缺陷的
  疑问词 to do sth.
  
what to do
  
how to do
  疑问词是why 的时候要省略 to, 通常用于否定。

  Eg. Why not ask him.
  其他的工程师,正在编一些允许机器人做出决策的程序,例如,是否抛弃那些有缺陷的零部件。为了做到这些,机器人也必须能够识别出那些有毛病的零部件。

  Para.7  
  14.These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do.
  此句中 “assembled … decisions” 是一个过去分词作状语。“ to see and make decisions”是不定式短语作定语修饰ability

  assemble 装备

  15.They can be used to explore for minerals on the ocean floor or in deep areas of mines too dangerous for humans to enter.
  句中explore 是不及物动词,词义是勘探,勘察,后面跟介词
for,
  too … to 以致不能…, 所以不

  例:Its too cold for us to go swimming . 天气太冷,大家不能去游泳

  全句大意是:它们可用在海底探矿或进入对人有危险的矿井深处。
  They work as gas station attendants, firemen, housekeepersand security personnel.
  本句翻译:机器人也能够作为煤气站的服务员,救火队员管家以及安全工作人员。

  
Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
  想要了解未来工业的机器人,必须了解机器人学。

  
  .重点句子:

  1.Robots, becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.
  
2.Most of todays robots are employed in the automotive industry, where they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies.
  强调非限定性定语从句的引导词
“where”
  
3.They also load and unload hot, heavy metal forms used in machines casting automobile and truck frames.
  注:分词短语作定语。

  4.Robots, already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning to be seen,
  现在分词短语作定语

  5.The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials, preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.
  used 过去分词短语作

  preventing :伴随状语

  
6.Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
  
7.As an example, a robot doing spot welding one month can be reprogrammed and switched to spray painting the next.
  Reprogrammedswitched是并列的

  8.With the ability to "see", robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials.
  to "see":不定式作后置定语

  9.When light from an object such as a machine part strikes the camera, the sensitive materials measure the intensity of light and convert the light rays into a range of numbers.
  本句练习翻译

  10.It is not yet known whether robots will one day have vision as good as human vision.
  
11.Engineers working on other advances are designing and experimenting with new types of metal hands and fingers, giving robots a sense of touch.
  
12.These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do.
  assembled with…过去分词短语作定语

  13.They can be used to explore for minerals on the ocean floor or deep areas of mines too dangerous for humans to enter.
  too…to 而不能……

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