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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B Advantage Unfair

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text B Advantage Unfair

 

New Words
  1 conspiracy n.  1.阴谋,密谋;2.阴谋集团,阴谋帮派

  2 old-boy n.    1.老同学;2.(招呼用)老朋友,老弟,老兄
  3 network n.    1.[]网眼织物;2.网状物,网络
  4 escalator n.   自动扶梯
  5 privilege n.   特权
        vt.   给予特权
  6 profession n.  职业(尤指脑力劳动或受过专业训练的)
  7 graduate vi.   大学毕业,[]毕业

        vt.   [主美]准予毕业
        a.   1.毕业的;2.研究生的
        n.   大学毕业生;[]毕业生
  8 unfair a.    不公平的,不公正的
  9 employment n.  1.使用;2.雇佣;3.职业,工作
  10 publish vt.   1.出版,刊印;2.公布,发表
  11 senior a.    1.年长的,年纪较大的;

            2.地位较高的,资历较深的;
            3.[](大学)高年级的,[]大学四年级的
       n.    1.年长者,2.资历深者,上级
  12 appoint vt.   1.任命,委任(as)2.约定,指定(时间,地点)
  13 private a.   1.私人的,私有的;2.私营的,私立的;3.秘密的,私下的

  14 headmaster n.  (中学或小学的)校长
  15 leading a.   1.领导的,引导的;2.最重要的,主要的
  16 bias n.     偏见
       v.    [常用被动语态]有偏见(against towards)
  17 entry n.    1.进入,入场(),入会权;2.入口;3.登记,条目,帐目

  18 merit n.    1.优点,长处;2.功绩,功劳
  19 fiercely ad.  1.凶猛地,凶残地;2.猛烈地
  20 competitive a. 竞争的;比赛的
  21 entrance n.   1.进入;2.入口,门口;3.入场,入会,入学
  22 additional a.  附加的,追加的;另外的
  23 abolish vt.   废除(法律,习惯等);取消
  24 applicant n.  申请人,请求者
  25 performance n. 1.实行,完成;2.表现,工作性能;3.演出,演奏
  26 accessible a.  1.易接近的,能进去的;2.易受影响的(to)3.可理解的(to)
  27 elite n.    [集合名词]精英,杰出人物

       a.     杰出的,精英的
  28 academic a.   1.(高等)专科院校的,研究院的,学会的;2.学术的
  29 excellence n.  优秀,杰出
  30 recruit vt./vi. 1.征募(新兵),吸取(新成员)2.聘用,补充
         n.   新兵;新成员
  31 equivalent a.  1.相等的,相同的(to)2.等价的,等量的,等效的
          n.  1.等价(),等量()2.对应词(或对应语)
  32 ivy n. 常青藤

  33 replicate vt. 重复;复制
  34 elitist n.  1.杰出人物;2.杰出人物统治论者
        a.  1.杰出人物的;2.杰出人物统治论的
  35 remedial a.  1.治疗的,治疗上用的;2.补救的
  36 prime a.  1.最初的,基本的;2.首要的,主要的;3.第一流的,最好的
  37 vision n.  1.想像力,幻觉;2.视力,视觉;3.眼光
  38 classless a.  1.无阶级的;2.不属于任何阶级的

  Phrases and Expressions
  1 to amount to     1.达到,总计;2.相当于,等于

  2 on average(on an average on the average) 平均
  3 to blame … for   为责备某人
  4 by nature      生来,天生,就其本性而言
  5 be worth doing    值得做
  
Proper Names
  Walter Ellis  沃尔特.埃利斯

  Oxbridge    牛津大学和剑桥大学
  Oxford      牛津,牛津大学
  Cambridge    剑桥,剑桥大学
  John Rae    约翰.
  Westminster   威斯敏斯特
  France      法兰西,法国
  Ivy League   常春藤联合会

  Harvard     哈佛大学
  Yale      耶鲁大学
  Princeton    普林斯顿大学
  Stanford    斯坦福大学
  Berkeley    伯克利
  John Major   约翰.梅杰
  escalator
  电梯:
elevator, lift
  
profession
  career 事业,职业(终身所从事的职业)

  vocation 指帮助人的职业,如医生,护士,教师
  occupation (比较正式)职业
  job 工作,职业
  work 工作,职业
  TextB 重点词汇:
  1. appoint : 任命,委任
  appointment
  Hes just been appointed as director of the publishing division. 他刚被任命为出版社的主任。

  2. accessible : adj. 易接近的,能进去的,
  The problem with some of these drugs is that they are so very accessible. 毒品的问题在于毒品太易得到了。
  She has made some attempt to make opera accessible to a wider public. 她曾尝试着让歌剧走进更广大的大众。
  派生词:access n. 通路,入口,接近(或进入)的机会
  3. to amount to : 达到,总计;相当于

  The cost amounts to $3,000. 费用总计3000 美金。
  Her words amount to a refusal. 她的话无异于拒绝。
  4. to blame sb. for : 责备某人
  Public opinion blames Mrs. Smith for leading the girl astray.
  舆论责怪史密斯夫人把那位姑娘引入歧途。

  You cant really blame Helen for not wanting to get involved.
  海伦不想被卷入其中,你确实不能为此责备她。

  5. by nature : 生来,天生,
  He is an optimist by nature. 他生来一个乐天派。
  He was, by nature, a man of few words. 他是天生沉默寡言的人。
  a few+可数名词
  a little + 不可数名词

  Text B 重点句子:
  Advantage Unfair
  According to the writer Walter Ellis, author of a book called the Oxbridge Conspiracy, Britain is still dominated by the old-boy network: it isnt what you know that matters, but who you know. He claims that at Oxford and Cambridge Universities Oxbridge for short a few select people start on an escalator ride which, over the years, carries them to the tops of British privilege and power. His research revealed that the top professions all continue to be dominated, if not 90 percent, then 60 or 65per cent, by Oxbridge graduates.

  And yet, says Ellis, Oxbridge graduates make up only two percent of the total number of students who graduate from Britains universities. Other researches also seem to support his belief that Oxbridge graduates start with an unfair advantage in the employment market. In the law, a recently published report showed that out of 26 senior judges appointed to the High Court last year,all of them went to private schools and 21 of them went to Oxbridge.
  
But can this be said to amount to a conspiracy? Not according to Dr.John Rae, a former headmaster of one of Britains leading private school,Westminster:
  
“I would accept that there was a bias in some key areas of British life, but that bias has now gone.Some time ago—in the 60s and before —entry to Oxford and Cambridge was not entirely on merit.Now, theres absolutely no question in any objective observers mind that entry to Oxford and Cambridge is fiercely competitive.”
  
However many would disagree with this. For, although over three—quarters of British pupils are educated in state schools, over half the students that go to Oxbridge have been to private, over half the students that go to Oxbridge have been to private, or “public” school.Is this because pupils from Britains private schools are more intelligent than those from state schools, or are they simply better prepared?
  On average,about 5,000 a year is spent on each private school pupil, more than twice the amount spent on state school pupils
.So how can the state schools be expected to compete with the private schools when they have far fewer resources? And how can they prepare their pupils for the special entrance exam to Oxford University, which requires extra preparation, and for which many public school pupils traditionally stay at school and do an additional term?
  Until recently, many blamed Oxford for this bias because of the universitys special entrance exam Cam bridge abolished its entrance exam in 1986
But last February,Oxford University decided to abolish the exam to encourage more state school applicants.From autumn 1996, Oxford University applicants, like applicants to other universities, will be judged only on their A level results and on their performance at interviews, although some departments might still set special tests.
  
However, some argue that theres nothing wrong in having elite laces of learning,and by their very nature,these places should not be easily accessible. Most countries are run by an elite and have centers of academic excellence from which the elite are recruited. Walter Ellis accepts that this is true:
  
“But in France, for example, there are something like 40equivalents of university, which provide this elite through a much broader base,In America youve got the Ivy League, centred on Harvard and Yale.with Princeton ad Stanford and others. But again, those universities together—the elite universities—are about ten or fifteen in number and are being pushed aling from behind by other great universities like,for example, Chicago and Berkeley, So you dont have just this narrow concentration of two universities providing a constantly replicating elite.”
  
When it comes to Oxford and Cambridge being elitist because of he number of private school pupils they accept, Professor Stone of Oxford University argues that there is a simple fact he and his associates cannot ignore:
“If certain schools so better than others then we just have to accept it. We cannot be a place for remedial education. Its not what Oxford is there to do.”
  
However, since academic excellence does appear to be related to the amount of money spent per pupil,this does seem to imply that Prime Minister John Majors vision of Britain as a classless society is still a long way off. And it may be worth remembering that while John Major didnt himself go to Oxbridge most of his ministers did.
  
1. Britain is still dominated by the old- boy network; it isnt what you know that matters, but who you know.
  强调句,不是你懂得常识重要,而是你认识谁重要。

  2. He claims that at Oxford and Cambridge Universities Oxbridge for short a few select people start on an escalator ride which, over the years, carries them to the tops of British privilege and power. 比喻少数精选出来的人,进了牛津或剑桥,就像坐上了电梯一样,很快就会爬上英国权力的顶峰。
  3. On average, about 5,000 a year is spent on each private school pupil, more than twice the amount spent on state school pupils.
  On average = On the average 平均

  每个在私立学校读书的学生平均每年要花费约5000英镑,是每个国立学校学生花费的两倍多。
  4. And how can they prepare their pupils for the special entrance exam to Oxford University, which requires extra preparation, and for which many public school pupils traditionally stay at school and do an additional term?
  which for which都是引导定语从句修饰
exam
  
5. When it comes to Oxford and Cambridge being elitist because of the number of private school pupils they accept, professor Stone of Oxford University argues that there is a simple fact he and his associates cannot ignore:
  When it comes to … “当谈及,涉及

  例如:
When it comes to our children taking the exam, I almost know nothing.
  当谈到孩子们的考试,我一无所知。

  6. And it may be worth remembering that while John Major didnt himself go to Oxbridge, most of his ministers did.
  be worth + 动名词 用主动式表示被动含义

  例如:This book is worth reading.这本书值得一读
   The film is worth seeing. 此影片值得一看。

  Unit 3 练习
  1.词汇英译汉
  weaken deteriorate debate legal request criterion ensure oppose tradition consideration disabled burden vulnerable prohibition sensitive   词组:to debate on to make request for be opposed t to take … into account
  2.句子英译汉(重点句)

  Affected with a serious disease, van Wendal was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.
  
Van Wendels last three months of life before being given a final, lethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands.
  
The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shown, it starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
  
What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people havent the right.
  
The guidelines demand that the patient is experiencing extreme suffering, that there is no chance of a cure, and that the patient has made repeated requests for euthanasia.
  
I think that anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.
  3.句子汉译英
P.59
  安乐死的确能解除临终病人的痛苦。

  Euthanasia can really help rid the dying patients of extreme suffering.
  
Euthanasia does release the dying people from their suffering.
  你知道不知道荷兰是欧洲唯一允许安乐死的国家
?
  
Do you know that the Netherlands is the only country in Europe that permits euthanasia?
  支撑这一观点的医生并不意味着他们不关心病人。

  Those doctors who support the idea never mean they dont care about / for patients.
  在第一个医生诊断疾病之后,必须由另外一名医生确认病情。

  After the first doctor has diagnosed the illness, a second doctor must confirm the case.
  反对者认为病人并不一定真正希翼结束生命,可能请求之后另有他求。

  Opponents think patients may not really want to end their lives, and probably there is another request behind the request.

  历年考题:

  1. The film ______show Cees Van Wendels death was both moving and sensitive. 99.10
  答案: showing 考点:showing 是现在分词作定语修饰the film.
  2. Each time the programmer of Van Wendals last days before euthanasia was showed on TV, it starts a nationwide debate ______ the subject. 99.10

  A. for
  
B. against
  
C. on
  
D. of
  答案: C 考点:词组debate on 的争论。

  3. 汉译英:每次播放这个节目,都引起对此话题的全国性大辩论。(99.10
  答案: Each time it is shown, this program starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
  4. 汉译英 据说那个病人曾要求医生助他一死。(00.10

  答案: The patient is said to have asked the doctor to help him die.
   或者: It is said that the patient has asked the doctor to help him die.


  语法:一致关系
  一致关系是指句子成分之间须在人称、数、性等方面保持一致。在英语中最主要的一致关系是主语和谓语动词之间数的一致,即主谓一致。其次,人称代词和它们所指的对象之间也要保持一致。
  一、主谓一致
  在现代英语中主谓一致基本遵循如下原则:
  语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近原则。
  二、代词一致
  代词一致是指句子中代词应在数、性、人称等方面保持一致,或代词和它所指代的名词词组在某些方面保持一致。

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