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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Euthanasia : For and Against

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

For and against=For or against
  Pro and(or) Con 赞成
  课文概况
  安乐死是否合法?对于这个问题,不同的国家有不同的观点。在欧洲,荷兰和比利时两个国家已经给予其合法化。
  本文主要通过荷兰人齐思··万德尔··尤德要求医生对他实行安乐死的事例,对有关安乐死的种种问题进行了讨论:医生是否有权剥夺别人的生命?实行安乐死对身患绝症的人来说是一种摆脱还是谋杀?对此存在着截然不同的两种观点。
  Paras 1-4 The subject about euthanasia.
  Paras 5-10 There are opinions for and against the practice of euthanasia
  practice=practice 实施,实践
  New Words

1 euthanasia

n. 无痛楚的死亡;安乐死

2 weaken

vt./vi. 削弱,减弱

3 Dutchman

n. 荷兰人

4 deteriorate

vt./vi. (使)恶化

5 lethal

a. 致死的

6 injection

n. 注射;注射剂

7 nationwide

a./ad. 全国性的;在全国范围内

8 debate

vt./vi./n.. 争论,辩论

9 legal

a. 法律上的;合法的

10 Dutch

a./n. 荷兰人的;荷兰语

11 parliament

n. 议会,国会

12 prosecute

vt. 起诉

13 request

n. 请求,要求

14 criterion

n.标准,准则

15 crowd

n./vi.群,人群

16 ensure

vt. 保证,担保

17 healthcare

n.保健

18 oppose

vt. 反对,反抗

19 tradition

n. 传统,惯例

20 hospice

n. (晚期病人)收容所

21 council

n. 理事会,委员会

22 founder

n. 创造者;缔造者

23 consideration

n. 考虑,体谅

24 elderly

a./n. 较老的,人过中年的

25 disabled

a. 伤残的;

26 burden

n./vt. 担子,负担;责任,义务

27 opt

vi. 抉择,选择

28 shorten

vt./vi. 缩短,缩小

29 vulnerable

a. 易受伤的,弱小的

30 prohibition

n. 禁止;禁令

31 individual

n./a. 个人,个体;个人的,个别的

32 paternalistic

a. 家长式的统治的

33 moving

a. 活动的,移动的

34 sensitive

a. 敏感的,灵敏的

  词组:

1 to be affected with

患有疾病

2 to debate on

关于进行辩论

3 to make request for

要求

4 be opposed to

反对

5 to open up

打开,开办,开辟,坦诚地或无拘束地谈话

6 to take … into account

考虑到

7 need for

的需要

8 to opt out of

决定不参加… , 决定从退出

9 to have … at heart

对某事十分关心

  词汇精讲:
  1. weaken : v. 削弱;变弱;
  She seems to be weakening.
  They have never weakened their stand for human rights.
  派生词:weak a. 虚弱的,软弱的
  手写板000741
  类似的词有:
  short, sharp, wide, dark, broad
  同义词:undermine
  2. debate : 争论,辩论
  用法:to debate on 进行辩论;
  Lincoln debated Douglas on this issue. 林肯与道格拉斯就这个问题进行了辩论。
  Education is the current focus of public debate. 教育是当前公众争论的焦点。
  同义词:dispute
  3. legal : a.法律上的,合法的
  派生词: illegal a. 不合法的
  4. request : vt/n. 请求,要求
  搭配:request for 要求… ; make a request for 要求;at sbs request 之要求;
  例:He made a request for immediate help. 他要求马上给予帮助。
  The singer gave one more song at our request. 歌唱家在大家的要求下又唱了一首歌。
  They made a request to release the prisoners.他们要求释放犯人。
  其他用法:request 后接that 从句时,从句的谓语动词用虚拟语气"should + 动词原形"的形式。例:He requested that he (should)
stay for more days. 他请求再住一些天。
  5. criterion : 标准,准则 复数:criteria (批评、判断、决定的标准和准则)
  例: What criteria do you use to judge a good wine? 你用什么标准判断酒的好坏?
  同义词:standard 标准 (客观的、公正的标准,可用于比较、衡量事物)
  例: The standard of living has improved greatly.生活的标准已经大大提高。
  6. ensure : vt. 保证,保护;赋予
  用法:ensure sb. that 确保…. ; ensure sth.
  I can ensure that he will come at 12 oclock , 我能保证他将在12点钟来。
  他的才能将保证他得到成功。 His ability will ensure his success.
  7. oppose vt. 反对
  派生词:opposition n. 反对;opponent n. 对手
  用法:be opposed to 反对 ,
  We are firmly opposed to this dirty political deal. 大家坚决反对这场肮脏的政治交易。
  What he said was totally opposed to
the facts. 他说的与事实完全相反。
  He is very much opposed to
my going abroad. 他非常反对我出国。
  区别:oppose be opposed to
  They opposed the plan. 他们反对此计划。(表示动作)
  They were opposed to the plan 他们反对此计划。(表示态度)
  8. disabled : 伤残的,使失去战斗力的
  派生词:disable v. 使不能… ; able adj. 有能力的;enable v. 使能够…..unable a. 不能的,没有能力的;
  用法:
  the disabled 残疾人
  disable sb. from doing sth. 使某人不能干… , 使某人丧失能力;
  一场事故使他再也不能打篮球了。 An accident disabled him from playing basketball.
  enable sb. to do sth. 使某人能做某事
  乘飞机使大家几个小时就能越过太平洋。Flying enables us to go across the Pacific in a few hours.
  be able to do sth. 能够做某事
  大家能说英语。 We are able to speak English.
  be unable to do sth. 不能做某事
  大家不能在9点钟之前到。 We are unable to get there before 9 oclock.
  9. sensitive : adj. 敏感的,灵敏的
  派生词:sense n. 感觉,感知;
  用法:be sensitive to 很敏感
  Her reply showed that she was very sensitive to criticism. 她的回答表明她对批评非常敏感。
  他对天气变化很敏感。He is sensitive to the change of weather.
  词组精讲:
  1. to debate on : 关于进行辩论
  Lincoln debated Douglas on this issue. 林肯与道格拉斯就这个问题进行了辩论。
  2. to make a request for :要求
  He made a request for immediate help. 他要求马上给予帮助。
  3. to opposed to : 反对
  He is very much opposed to my going abroad . 他非常反对我出国。
  4. to open up : 打开,开办,开辟
  We shall open up the resources of the NW areas of our country.
  大家将开发我国西北地区的资源。
  They are preparing to open up a national debate. 他们正准备展开一场全国性的争论。
  5 to take … into account : 考虑到;估计
  We must take local conditions into account. 大家必须考虑到当地的条件。
  You must take her inexperience into account. 你必须考虑到她无经验而予以体谅。
  相关词汇:to take … into consideration 考虑到
  6. need for : 的需要
  Theres a growing need for cheap rented housing in the large cities.
  大城市对廉租房的需求不断增加。
  课文句子精讲
  Text A
  Euthanasia : For and Against
  "We mustnt delay any longer ... swallowing is difficult ... and breathing, thats also difficult. Those muscles are
weakening too ... we mustnt delay any longer."
  第一部分: para.1 --- para. 4
  Para. 1
  1. "We mustnt delay any longer…" 大家不可以再拖延了
  mustnt 不应该, 不可以
  not any longer 不再,再也不 , no longer 不再
  These were the words of
Dutchman Cees van Wendel de Joode asking his doctor to help him die. Affected with a serious disease, van Wendel was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.
  Para.2
  2. affected with a serious disease 为过去分词短语作原因状语;句中there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating knew 的两个宾语从句。
  本句的意思是:范·万德尔身患重病,再也不能清楚地说话。他知道他没有希翼康复,身体状况正在急剧恶化。
  Van Wendels last three months of life before being given a final,
lethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands. The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shown, it starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
  Para.3
  3. Van Wendels last three months of life … …were filmed
  不可数名词前面有单位词修饰,谓语的数与单位词的数一致。
  例:Two bottles of beer were served.
  4. 句中"being given a final, lethal injection by his doctor"为被动结构的动名词短语,用作介词 "before"的宾语。句中"film" 用作动词,表示"将故事拍成影片"
  本句的意思:范·万德尔 生命的最后三个月,在接受医生给他打的最后致命一针之前,被拍成了影片并于去年首次在荷兰电视上播出。
  5. 句中"since "为副词,表示"从那以后" each time 引导的是时间状语从句。
  本句译为:"从那时起,已有20多个国家购买了这个节目,每次播放都引起对这个问题的全国性大辩论。
  The Netherlands is the only country in Europe which permits euthanasia, although it is not
technically legal there. However, doctors who carry out euthanasia under strict guidelines introduced by the Dutch Parliament two years ago are usually not prosecuted. The guidelines demand that the patient is experiencing extreme suffering, that there is no chance of a cure, and that the patient has made repeated requests for euthanasia.
  permits=allows
  Para.4
  6. which引导定语从句修饰country , although 引导让步状语从句
  it is not technically legal 根据法律是不合法的.
  technically ad. 严格按法律意义地,严格遵循某些规章制度地
  (备注:荷兰在2001年四月已立法)
  本句译为:"尽管它根据法律是不合法的,但是荷兰是欧洲唯一允许安乐死的国家。"
  7. who carry out euthanasia under strict guidelines introduced by the Dutch parliament two years ago 是定语从句修饰doctors.而其中 " introduced …. ago" 为过去分词短语作定语,修饰guidelines。介词under 在此表示"根据,按照"
  主句: doctors … … are usually not prosecuted.
  本句的意思是:不过,实行安乐死的医生如果遵守荷兰议会两年前制定的严格准则,通常不会遭起诉。
  8. 三个that 引导的都是demand 的宾语从句,说明实行安乐死必须同时满足这三个条件。demand 在此表示"规定",而不是"要求"的意思,因此,其后所接宾语从句也没有用(should+ 动词原形的虚拟语气形式。
  本句的意思是:这些准则要求,病人必须正在经受极大的痛苦, 没有治愈的可能,并且病人一再请求安乐死。
  introduce:推行
  In addition to this, a second doctor must confirm that these
criteria have been met and the death must be reported to the police department.
  9 a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met and the death must be reported to the police department.
  a second doctor = another doctor 另外一名医生
  第二部分 para.5 --- para.10
  Should doctors be allowed to take the lives of others? Dr.Wilfred van Oijen, Cees van Wendels doctor, explains how he looks at the question:
  Para.5 提出问题 Should doctors be allowed to take the lives of others?
  10 Cees van Wendels doctor, Dr.Wilfred van Oijen的同位语。此句的主语和谓语被同位语所分开。谓语是 explains how he looks at the question:是宾语从句。
  life的复数是lives
  "Well, its not as if Im planning to murder a
crowd of people with a machine gun. In that case, killing is the worst thing 1 can imagine. But thats entirely different from my work as a doctor. I care for people and I try to ensure that they dont suffer too much. Thats a very different thing."
  Para.6
  11 as if = as though 仿佛,好像似的
  引导方式状语从句,一般用虚拟语气,如果与事实相符,也可用陈述语气。
  12 In that case , 在那种情况下 case n. 情况,事例,案例,病例
  killing is the worst thing 1 can imagine. 杀人是我能想象出的最残忍的事情。
  Para.7 8(两位反对安乐死的人和他们的观点)
  Many people, though, are totally against the practice of euthanasia, Dr. Andrew Ferguson, Chairman of the organization
Healthcare Opposed to Euthanasia, says that "in the vast majority of euthanasia cases, what the patient is actually asking for is something else. They may want a health professional to open up communication for them with their loved ones or family — theres nearly always another question behind the question."
  13 Many people, though, are totally against the practice of euthanasia, 此句中的though = however
  14 Chairman of the organization Healthcare Opposed to Euthanasia Dr. Andrew Ferguson 的同位语。此句的主语和谓语被同位语所分开。
  Britain also has a strong
tradition of hospices — special hospitals which care only for the dying and their special needs. Cicely Saunders, President of the National Hospice Council and a founder member of the hospice movement, argues that euthanasia doesnt take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying. She is also concerned that allowing euthanasia would undermine the need for care and consideration of a wide range of people: "Its very easy in society now for the elderly, the disabled and the dependent to feel that they are burdens, and therefore that they ought to opt out. I think that anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.
  15 “president of the National Hospice Council and a founder member of the hospice movement” Cicely Saunders 的同位语。此句的主语和谓语被同位语所分开。
  “that euthanasia doesn’t take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying argue 的宾语从句;在宾语从句中,there are ways of caring for the dying take 的宾语从句。
   此句的意思是:国家晚期病人收容所委员会主席和收容运动发起人茜西里·桑得斯认为安乐死没有考虑到总会有办法照顾临终病人。
  16 “that anything that legally allows the shortening of life does not make those people more vulnerable” 句中第一个thatthink 的宾语从句的引导词,that legally allows the shortening of life 是定语从句,修饰anything
  vulnerable 是形容词作宾语补语
  Many find this
prohibition of an individuals right to die paternalistic. Although they agree that life is important and should be respected, they feel that the quality of life should not be ignored. Dr. van Oijen believes that people have the fundamental right to choose for themselves if they want to die: "What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people havent the right. And that when people are very ill, we are all afraid of their death. But there are situations where death is a friend. And in those cases, why not?"
  Para.9
  17“what those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me” 是主语从句,that dying people haven’t the right 是表语从句;在主语从句中,who oppose euthanasia 是定语从句,修饰people. 本句的意思:那些反对安乐死的人告诉我的是临终之人没有这个权利。
  and that time when …
  18 Why not 是一个省略句 , 意思是:Why not help them die?
   Why not have euthanasia?
  But "why not?" is a question which might cause strong emotion. The film showing Cees van Wendels death was both
moving and sensitive. His doctor was clearly a family friend; his wife had only her husbands interests at heart. Some, however, would argue that it would be dangerous to use this particular example to support the case for euthanasia. Not all patients would receive such a high level of individual care and attention.
  Para.10
  19 Some, however, would argue that it would be dangerous to use this particular example to support the case for euthanasia.
  that 引导宾语从句, 从句中 it 是形式主语,不定式 to use 是实际主语
  20 Not all patients would receive such a high level of individual care and attention.
  并不是所有的病人都能得到如此高水平的个别护理和关照。
  accept 是主动的接受
  重点句
   Euthanasia : For and Against
  "We mustnt delay any longer ... swallowing is difficult ... and breathing, thats also difficult. Those muscles are weakening too ... we mustnt delay any longer."
  These were the words of Dutchman Cees van Wendel de Joode asking his doctor to help him die. 1 Affected with a serious disease, van Wendel was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.
  2 Van Wendels last three months of life before being given a final, lethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands. 3 The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shown, it starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
  The Netherlands is the only country in Europe which permits euthanasia, although it is not technically legal there. 4 However, doctors who carry out euthanasia under strict guidelines introduced by the Dutch Parliament two years ago are usually not prosecuted. 5 The guidelines demand that the patient is experiencing extreme suffering , that there is no chance of a cure, and that the patient has made repeated requests for euthanasia. In addition to this, a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met and the death must be reported to the police department.
  Should doctors be allowed to take the lives of others? Dr, Wilfred van Oijen, Cees van Wendels doctor, explains how he looks at the question:
  "Well, its not as if Im planning to murder a crowd of people with a machine gun. In that case, killing is the worst thing 1 can imagine. But thats entirely different from my work as a doctor. I care for people and I try to ensure that they dont suffer too much. Thats a very different thing."
  Many people, though, are totally against the practice of euthanasia, Dr. Andrew Ferguson, Chairman of the organization Healthcare Opposed to Euthanasia, says that "in the vast majority of euthanasia cases, 6 what the patient is actually asking for is something else. They may want a health professional to open up communication for them with their loved ones or family — theres nearly always another question behind the question."
  7 Britain also has a strong tradition of hospices — special hospitals which care only for the dying and their special needs. Cicely Saunders, President of the National Hospice Council and a founder member of the hospice movement, 8 argues that euthanasia doesnt take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying. She is also concerned that allowing euthanasia would undermine the need for care and consideration of a wide range of people: "Its very easy in society now for the elderly, the disabled and the dependent to feel that they are burdens, and therefore that they ought to opt out. I think that anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.
  Many find this prohibition of an individuals right to die paternalistic. Although they agree that life is important and should be respected, they feel that the quality of life should not be ignored. Dr. van Oijen believes that people have the fundamental right to choose for themselves if they want to die:9 "What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people havent the right. And that when people are very ill, we are all afraid of their death. But there are situations where death is a friend. And in those cases, why not?"
  But "why not?" is a question which might cause strong emotion. The film showing Cees van Wendels death was both moving and sensitive. His doctor was clearly a family friend; his wife had only her husbands interests at heart. Some, however, would argue that it would be dangerous to use this particular example to support the case for euthanasia. Not all patients would receive such a high level of individual care and attention.

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