A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available.
Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.
If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made.
For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.
For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion.
Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best—that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.
In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
8、有些目标比另一些目标更重要，但其排序和重要性则因人和部门而异。P7Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department .