254俄罗斯最线路网站-糖果派对俄罗斯网址495

2015年00015英语(二)复习资料-考前笔记:III.第三部分

山西自考网 发布时间:2015年10月12日

第三部分

Para.5

  At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  15.At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  在as well as 结构中,强调前者 limiting alternatives ,不强调后者

  译为:作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成:不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)

  practically ad. 实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如:几乎是不可能practically impossible

Para.6

  Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.

  16.An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.

  一个省略that或which的定语从句,修饰a state of affairs “事物的状态,事态”

  to seek to do sth. 追求,争取,寻求,设法(去做某事)

  17.Because individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.

  本句中,because 引导了原因状语从句;在主句中,who makes the decision 是作depend on 的介词宾语从句。

  18.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.

  两个that引导的都是定语从句,修饰decisions

  less than 在此做状语,表示否定的含义, less than optimal “不太理想”

  例如:This job is less than perfect. 这份工作不十分理想(完美)。

  19.this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.

  that引导定语从句,修饰trade-off “权衡”

  increases 和 decreases 是定语从句的并列谓语

Para.7

  These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in differentterms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.

  20.These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously.

  Because 引导的原因状语从句中,有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰many objectives

  21.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department.

  vary from … to … 表示各不相同的意思。

  例:The percentage varies from person to person. (税收的) 比例因人而异。

  22.When presented with a common case

  presented with 面对

  过去分词短语前面加上when作时间状语。

  为了表示明确的时间或条件,有时常在分词前面加上when, while, even if , even though , unless 等连词作时间、条件、让步等状语。 (详见语法要点)

254俄罗斯最线路网站|糖果派对俄罗斯网址495

XML 地图 | Sitemap 地图