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2015年00015英语(二)复习资料-语法及课后翻译1

山西自考网 发布时间:2015年05月26日
一、语法 Grammar & Usage 
  Subject-Verb Agreement (I) 
1.主谓一致的三条原则 
  1)语法一致,即在语法形式上取得一致。 
  Human beings enjoy learning. 
  Everybody's understanding is incomplete. 
  2)意义一致,即根据意义来处理一致关系。 
  The people there are fighting for the independence of their country. 
  The dollars was a lot of money at that time. 
  3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。 
  There is a pen, two pencils and an eraser in the pencil box. 
  Neither the boy nor his teachers know the answer. 
2.集体名词作主语时与动词的一致 
  1)当主语为furniture, equipment, machinery等词时,谓语动词通常用单数。 
  The furniture in that shop is all made in China. 
  Office equipment is very expensive nowadays. 
  A lot of new machinery has been installed. 
  2)集体名词如people, cattle, police, poultry,等往往作复数用。 
  Some people drive madly in this country. 
  Many cattle have died because of the fold. 
  The police have been sent there but they have not made any arrests yet. 
  Poultry are plentiful in that mountain region. 
  3)family, government, class, committee, audience , team, public 等词被视做一个整体时,其后的动词作单数;被视做为构成整体的个体时,其后的动词则为复数。 
  His family is a happy one. 
  His family are all interested in stamp-collecting. 
  The Democratic Government is in power now. 
  The government is/are considering further tax cuts. 
  The audience was very quite when he was giving his speech. 
  The audience were shouting and laughing when he came into the hall. 
  Our class is the top class in the grade. 
  The class are busy taking notes. 
 

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